Malus domestica ‘Kotoku’
青森県平川市, 黒石市, 南津軽郡田舎館村, 北津軽郡板柳町, 弘前市（JA津軽みらい, こみつの会）
Imagine that it was a delicious apple with amazing honey, but it was surprisingly small and got a high profit. In addition, products made by members of the Komitsu Association that meet certain standards are shipped under the name of Komitsu.
Despite being extremely delicious apples, Kotoku apples, which were on the brink of extinction a few years ago, were not very well received in the general market due to the fact that the rich honey content is difficult to convey at stores, and they tend to have small balls. It seems However, the tenacious sales channel development and thorough quality control of the former Tsugaru Ishikawa Agricultural Cooperative over many years have finally succeeded in gaining the support of discerning consumers. With its growing popularity, other production areas also began to cultivate kotoku. In August 2007, registration was approved for the product name of Kotoku produced by the same agricultural cooperative, which exceeds a certain standard. Currently, “Komitsu” is a registered trademark of Komitsu association. Koutoku paradise apple worked for about 40 years at the Apple Experiment Station (Tanaka, Kuroishi City) of the Aomori Prefectural Industrial Technology Center. Born on September 26, 1901. Became an engineer at the Aomori Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station in 1928, and became the director in 1952. Worked on apple disease research and was said to be an endemic disease, Monilinia mali. It occurs on leaves, flowers, and young fruits, and is called leaf worm, flower worm, and fruit worm, respectively. The leaf worm infects the expanded leaves shortly after germination, and brown lesions appear on the midribs or veins. After that, it reaches the base of the flower bud through the petiole and withers to form the flower bud. When the stem grows and the base of the fruit rots through the fruit peduncle, it becomes a kabuki that wilts, including healthy fruits. If the fruit is shrunk and kabuzu occurs frequently, it affects the yield. The primary source of infection is the year before the wintering. Ascospores scattered from the fungus (fruiting body = peridis) formed on the sclerotia formed in the fruited fruit. This infects the leaves, resulting in leaf spores and flower spores that appear gray. Forms powdery conidia. Conidia can infect only flowering stigma (floral infection) and produce fruit pods, which later fall off and form sclerotia, source of infection in the following year and the year after next. After his retirement, he sowed the seeds of “Toko apples” that were naturally hybridized in his own garden, and selected and nurtured apples from the seedlings. In 1984, Takahisa Kimura filed an application for registration based on the Seed and Seedling Law, and was registered in 1985. In more detail, Jinya Kimura of Kashiwagi Town, Minamitsugaru District (currently Kashiwagi, Hirakawa City), after retiring from the head of the Aomori Prefectural Experiment Station, sowed Toko apple seeds in her own garden in 1971 and cultivated 73. The first results were obtained in 1979, and the selection was made in 1979; In February 1982, his breeder died at the age of 80, and from April of the same year, Suetsugu Kudo, Seiichi Kudo, and Renichi Kudo from Hirosaki City, and Kiyoharu Kon from Kuroishi City started trial production of high grafted trees. In recent years, based on genotyping, it seems that one parent is Fuji apple and the other is Rom 16 apple. The year of registration was 1985, the registered variety was Takahisa Kimura, and the name at the time of filing was Koyo apples. The ripening period is from the end of October to the beginning of November, and it can be stored until around February in normal storage and until around May in refrigerated storage. It seems to be full of December. The fruits are circular, slightly smaller than Fuji apples, weighing about 200-300 g. The peel is yellow-green with clear pale brown stripes, and the peel is slightly glossy, and the fruit surface is smooth. The flesh is yellow, slightly hard, medium in texture, and appears to be very honeyed. It has an extremely large amount of juice, is sweet (with a sugar content of around 14%), has a moderately sour taste, and is fragrant. However, it seems that among the products sold at farmer’s markets such as Kotoku apple, without going through the former Tsugaru-Ishikawa Agricultural Cooperative, there were many variations, such as those with no honey or those that were a little immature. There are apples that have a lot of honey and others that don’t have much honey. It is said that there are more than 9,000 apple cultivars in the world. Cultivation became popular in Europe around the 16th and 17th centuries. Introduced to Japan from the United States after the end of the Edo period, Kogyoku apples and Kokko apples are typical pre-war varieties. Many varieties have been produced in Japan since the 1955s, and the Japanese-made “Fuji apple” (Chinese name is 富士) is currently the most-produced variety in the world. China produces the most apples in the world, and Fuji apples account for about 65% of China’s production. Malus pumila, the progenitor of edible apple cultivars in recent genetic studies, has been traced to his Malus sieversii, a wild species native to West Asia. Apples that have been cultivated in Japan since before the end of the Edo period are called waringo, and the impression is that the fruits are small. Fukushima’s apples are said to be warmer than those of Aomori and Nagano. Komitsu apples are like gems made from abundant leaves that actively perform photosynthesis and collect the nutrients in the whole body. In addition, it seems that unnecessary leaf picking is not done, and the maximum deliciousness is brought out. The proof is the wonderful honey. In addition, it seems that it is a different finish rich in umami because it is fully ripened on the tree until the fruit falls. There is uneven color of the peel that is shaded by the leaves, but I hear that taste is more important than appearance. Trying to make children in the areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake, which is a disaster caused by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake that occurred at 14:46:18 on March 11, 2011, and the accompanying accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, smile. , “Tsugaru Mirai Agricultural Cooperative (Hirakawa City)” seems to have donated 206 boxes of apples, a total of about 9,500, to elementary schools in 3 cities and towns in the Ishinomaki region on December 10, 2021. It seems that fruits and vegetables Ishimaki (Minami Akai, Higashimatsushima City, Miyagi Prefecture), who acted as a bridge, delivered them to each school, and all the children took them home one by one and ate them deliciously. A presentation ceremony was held at Higashi Matsushima City Hall (Yamoto Kamikawado, Higashi Matsushima City), and 12 people including the union leader of the agricultural cooperative and representatives of the three municipal boards of education attended. The union leader said that the apples in 2021 were very delicious without any damage such as typhoons. I want you to eat while thinking about the production site. He says he wants to continue to support him as his mental recovery is still going on. On behalf of the three cities and towns, the mayor of the city expressed his gratitude for continuing even 10 years after the earthquake. The agricultural cooperative started donating apples in 2011, and it seems to be the 11th time. It seems that he gave 152 boxes of “San Fuji APPLE” to Ishinomaki City, 48 boxes to Higashi Matsushima City, and 6 boxes to Onagawa Town (32 pieces each). Eleven years have passed since then, but with the passage of time, how to pass on the lessons has become an issue. Search activities are still ongoing today. The JA Youth Club promotes the activities of agriculture, JA, and JA Youth Club and the importance of community development with agriculture with handmade signboards to convey to local residents such as consumers. Around the end of January 2017, the highest award: Aomori Prefecture Tsugaru Mirai Agricultural Cooperative Youth Division Matsuzaki Branch was awarded, but it was still a new event in my memory. It seems that the image character “Rin” used in the packaging of apples for gifts last year is currently attracting the attention of Toyosu market officials. I have seen it several times. Tsugaru Mirai Agricultural Cooperative (head office Hirakawa City, Aomori Prefecture) is an Ishikawa agricultural product processing facility operated by the Agricultural Cooperative, which will be attached to “Roadside Station Hirosaki Sunfesta Ishikawa” in Hirosaki City on September 24, 2021. It was revealed that there was a misconduct that the product price of 3.78 million yen was lost due to improper cash processing for 6 years. Approximately one month ago, on August 25, the Norinchukin Bank designated it as “JA requiring improvement” and submitted measures to prevent recurrence. “Hirakawa City”, It is located at the southern end of the Tsugaru Plain in the southern part of Aomori Prefecture. Towada City and Kosaka Town, Akita Prefecture, bordering Towada Lake in the east. The west borders Hirosaki City and Owani Town across the Hirakawa River. To the north are Aomori City, Kuroishi City, and Inakadate Village. The south is an anchor type adjacent to Akita Prefecture, with a total area of 346.01 km2. The terrain is part of the Tsugaru Plain and has fertile soil geology suitable for agriculture. Flat land used as a paddy field and hills at an altitude of 20 to 300 m. A plateau used as a combined management zone for paddy rice and Apple, a mountainous area that belongs to a part of the Hakkouda / Towada volcanic group. Most of them are national forests（A forest cultivation system in which the people of a nation invest in government-owned forests and fields : shared forest system）. The climate of the city belongs to the Sea of Japan climate. Hakkoda Mountains in the east and Mt. Iwaki in the west are surrounded by mountains on all sides, so the climate is stable and warm throughout the year. It is said that it is the most blessed area in the prefecture with little temperature difference. There is a lot of greenery, and the natural environment where people can lead a comfortable life is maintained, and the changes of the four seasons are beautiful. It is also famous for having relatively few natural disasters. “Kuroishi City”, It is located almost in the center of the prefecture. It is blessed with abundant nature and abundant hot springs, with the Tsugaru Plain on three sides and the Hakkoda Mountains on the east. In an old castle town known for producing tasty “Kuroishi Rice” and “Kuroishi Apple”. We are promoting town development with the aim of becoming a colorful and attractive “country tourism industry city” in the season. Important preservation district of historic buildings : Nakamachi Komise Street（It is said that Komise, which is a major feature of the merchant town, was encouraged by the first lord of Kuroishi, Nobufusa Tsugaru, when he divided the town.In 1656, Meireki learned 5,000 koku of rice from the Hirosaki clan. Later, it became private land when the land tax was revised in the Meiji era. Despite becoming a completely private property, it still exists as a public space without obstructing the passage of people. The hood in front of the town house facing the street is called Komise in Aomori and Akita Region.）and autumn colors famous place “Nakano Momijiyama”. At the same time, “Kuroishi fried fagopyrum vulgare” and “Tsuyu fried soba” are attracting attention nationwide. “Inakadate Village Minamitsugaru District”, Born on April 1, 1955 by the merger of Inakadate Village and Koudenji Village. Located on the south side of the Tsugaru Plain. Many ruins from the Jomon period and the Yayoi period have been confirmed. Among them, the Tarena site (national historic site), which became famous nationwide, was found with about 656 paddy filed traces at the end of the middle of the yayoi period. There was already a military commander’s mansion in Nanboku Town period, Northern and Southern dynasties, Southern and Northern Dynasties (Vietnam), and Inakadate Castle Mr. Sentoku lived in the Warring States period. The fierce battle of Tensho 13 (1585) and the suicide of Oichi, the wife of Godai castle owner Sentoku kamon Masatake, have been handed down for a long time. In recent years, we have been promoting the creation of unevenness that cherishes these histories and the traditional culture that our predecessors have built up. It continues to develop as a rice-scented hometown where greenery (Agriculture, Nature) and industry are in harmony, and continues to this day. You can see Mt. Hakkouda to the east and Mt. Iwaki to the west. It extends 9 km from east to west and 6.5 km from north to south. Topography with an area of 22.35 km2. Aseishigawa runs from east to west in the center, and Hirakawa runs from north to south on the border with Hirosaki City, and most of the land is covered with alluvial soil. Rich water and plain fertile soil are suitable for planting rice, apples and vegetables. Residents are proud of the prosperity of northern rice culture and have struck a glorious history and tradition. “Itayanagi Town Kitatsugaru District”, It is located in the center of the western Tsugaru district of the prefecture. It has a typical Sea of Japan-type climate with abundant changes in the four seasons. Most of the total area of 41.88 km2 is flat. Located between Mt. Iwaki in the west and Togawa in the east, the thickly developed Holocene sediments of these water systems : Forming a rich and highly productive plain suitable for use as an apple orchard. In 1955, the merger of Itayanagi Town, Koami, Soikawa, and Hataoka’s one town and three villages. It was said that the settlement of the village was during the Bunroku and Keicho eras (1592-1615). This is due to the fact that it had a good port near the castle of the Tsugaru clan and was the only one on the Iwaki River, and that the only ferry port in the north was established. It developed rapidly as a department store, and a large settlement was formed and became prosperous. In the 4th year of the Horeki (1754), the feudal lord issued a sudden “order to suspend business”, and in addition, he was hit by the Great Meiwa Earthquake and gradually declined. Once upon a time, there were huge Itaya and Willow trees outside the old precincts of Ryuenji-Temple（Soto school (of Zen Buddhism)）, that is, on the eastern bank of the Iwaki River. The origin of the slang name of “Itaya amicorum Salix L.” was created by summarizing this Itaya willow. History of apples in Aomori prefecture : It begins with the distribution of three American saplings by the Ministry of Interior at the time in the 8th year of the Meiji era. The following year, it was cultivated on a trial basis in our town, and the number of growers continued to increase until the 30’s of the Meiji era due to the tireless research and efforts of its cultivation technology. Apple Light Festival : It was born from the desire of the townspeople to pray for a good harvest. “Hirosaki City”, Located in the western part of Prefecture, it is famous as the third largest city in the prefecture after Aomori City and Hachinohe City in terms of population. It is an inland area with a total area of 524.12 km2 and overlooks the Hakkoda mountain range in the Ou Mountains to the east. It has the highest peak of Mt. Iwaki called “Tsugaru Fuji Apple” in the west, and the Shirakami Mountains, which is registered as a World Heritage Site, straddles Akita in the south. In the plains, it originates in the Shirakami Mountains（The season for mountain hiking in the Shirakami Mountain Range has come with beech trees shooting buds!）. The Iwaki River, a first-class river with the largest basin area in the prefecture that flows into the Sea of Japan via Jusan Lake, flows north for about 30 km. The Hirakawa River and Aseishikawa River meet, and the fertile and vast Tsugaru Plain in the basin forms one of the best grain-producing areas in Aomori Prefecture. In the small hills around the plain, there is a 5.44 km2 orchard that produces about 40% of the core agricultural products, apples. The forest area stretches around the orchard and becomes an area blessed with a lush natural environment. Overview of my favorite Hirosaki city（Takaoka; Iwaki Town）; During World War II, the war ended after avoiding war damage. Developed as a cultural city based on numerous cultural heritage represented by castles and cherry blossoms and a blessed natural environment. Merged with 12 surrounding towns and villages in 1955 and 1957. Aiming to become the largest apple-producing area in Japan, a garden city of apples and rice. The population is declining, the birthrate is declining and the population is aging, and the daily living area is expanding. Responding appropriately to these issues as the environment surrounding rural areas changes drastically; I hope that it will be a comfortable city for everyone to live in. As we now face a new age of population decline and an aging society, small and medium retailers and other businesses that are rooted in their individual communities are asked to try new projects and new system development in order to work for the realization of a society in which it is comfortable to live and lives are rich. The sense of cardboard in the photo is outstanding. Indeed, a survey of people’s views regarding the importance of city centers reveals that providing a “hospitable environment for the elderly to live” is considered to be one of the most important roles of city centers. “Hirakawa City”, It is located at the southern end of the Tsugaru Plain in the southern part of Aomori Prefecture. Towada City and Kosaka Town, Akita Prefecture, bordering Towada Lake in the east. The west borders Hirosaki City and Owani Town across the Hirakawa River. To the north are Aomori City, Kuroishi City, and Inakadate Village. The south is an anchor type adjacent to Akita Prefecture, with a total area of 346.01 km2. The terrain is part of the Tsugaru Plain and has fertile soil geology suitable for agriculture. Flat land used as a paddy field and hills at an altitude of 20 to 300 m. A plateau used as a combined management zone for paddy rice and Apple, a mountainous area that belongs to a part of the Hakkouda / Towada volcanic group. Most of them are national forests（A forest cultivation system in which the people of a nation invest in government-owned forests and fields : shared forest system）. The climate of the city belongs to the Sea of Japan climate. Hakkoda Mountains in the east and Mt. Iwaki in the west are surrounded by mountains on all sides, so the climate is stable and warm throughout the year. It is said that it is the most blessed area in the prefecture with little temperature difference. There is a lot of greenery, and the natural environment where people can lead a comfortable life is maintained, and the changes of the four seasons are beautiful. It is also famous for having relatively few natural disasters. Former Hiraka Town: Many ruins from the Paleolithic period to the early modern period have been confirmed, and it seems that the footprints of ancestors can be seen everywhere. As a result of repeated mergers of towns and villages, the town boasts one of the largest areas and populations in the prefecture, and as a result, the terrain in the region has been divided into three categories, flat land, plateau, and mountainous area, depending on the altitude and shape. The flat land is composed of paddy fields and urban areas, the plateau is a complex area of paddy fields and apples, and the mountains are vast forest areas connected to Minami Hakkoda, where high-cold vegetables are cultivated in a cool climate. In this way, the region has developed under the blessed land, with the agricultural industry as the core industry from ancient times. In addition, the hot spring sources in various places have not only been the base of people in this area for a long time, but also as a tourism resource, heal people who visit this area both inside and outside the prefecture. In recent years, the all-weather sports facility “Hiraka Dome” has been completed, which is useful for maintaining the health and improving physical strength of residents, and has a presence as a symbol of the city. Onoe area : Until now, it has prospered as a granary of Tsugaru, and in particular, the rice produced in 1984 has been famous as a high-quality rice-rich area with the highest yield per 10 ares in Japan. In addition, apples are one of the most famous agricultural products, and they are the second largest agricultural products after rice. The industries that have grown rapidly when people began to seek moisture in their lives during the economic boom of the 1965s were the manufacturing industries such as brooms and goza, and the planting and landscaping industries. In particular, the planting and landscaping industry has continued to grow in proportion to the rapid economic growth, and has now grown into a major industry that represents the region. In addition, it has been known as a town of plants for a long time, and each family can see many splendid gardens and hedges, including the nationally designated scenic spot “Seibi Garden”. It has been certified as “Rural Amenity Contest Excellence Award”, “Rural Landscape 100 Selections”, and “Kaori Landscape 100 Selections”. This is also the trajectory of the efforts and challenges of our predecessors, and has been passed down as a fortune of wisdom and potential that we have acquired over the long history. In addition, these green efforts have contributed to the tourism industry and are visited by many people, centering on the “Omotenashi Romankan”, which connects Saruka Shrine, which has been deeply worshiped from inside and outside the prefecture, to Seibi Garage. “Ikarigaseki area; Former Ikarigaseki Village”: A barrier was established during the Tsugaru feudal era, and was responsible for military and economic control. In addition, because it was blessed with abundant hot spring resources, it became the lord’s temporary store (accommodation place) when the attendance was changed. Therefore, it has come to prosper as a hot spring post town with a checkpoint. In the 1955s, the hot springs of Oaza Ikarigaseki were integrated for the first time in the prefecture, and the status of “Ikarigaseki Onsenkyo” was established through the development of Yunosawa Onsen and Synergistic Hot Spring / Furutoobe Onsen, and the Sekisho was restored to promote tourism. It developed as “Barrier Toide Yunosato”. In addition, National Highway No. 7 runs through the center of the area and has the JR Ou Main Line “Ikarigaseki Station” and the Tohoku Expressway “Ikarigaseki Interchange”, so it has been a gateway to Tsugaru as a transportation hub since the feudal era. There is. Currently, the roadside station Ikarigaseki “Tsugaru Seki no Sho”, which consists of a direct sales office for specialty products, a cultural tourism center, an indoor pool “Yueikan”, and a hot spring exchange center “Okariya Goten”, is a sightseeing base in this area. It has become. Under these circumstances, the former Hiraka Town, the former Onoe Town and the former Ikarigaseki Village merged on January 1, 2006, and Hirakawa City was established as the 10th city in the prefecture. Based on the basic philosophy of “Aiming for a city where people, regions, and industries sparkle,” and “a city where people can work together with local residents.” , We are steadily moving forward with the aim of realizing “a city where comfortable living spaces are secured and the area is sparkling” and “a city where industries that make the most of the characteristics of the area are sparkling”. “Tsugaru” is a variety cultivated by the Aomori Prefectural Apple Research Institute (currently the Aomori Prefectural Industrial Technology Center Apple Research Institute: Kuroishi City). In 1930, pollen of a monkey variety was crossed with “Golden Delicious”, but the combination was unknown and the pollen parent was unknown. Selected in 1943 from mated seedlings produced by unknown pollen parents. After a while, in 1973, an application for registration was made by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, and it was registered in 1975. “The taste is good and the shelf life is not bad. As for the characteristics”, Since it has leaves, it is not evenly beautiful red, but it absorbs nutrients from the leaves that have been exposed to a lot of sunlight. Of the taste, the sweetness is strong, there is a slight acidity, and the juice is a bundle, is a beautiful product. “Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law; Pierre Bouguer (France), August Beer, Johann Heinrich Lambert (Germany)” transmissiontance: Percentage of incident light of a specific wavelength passing through the sample (optical) . A method that stabilizes the absorption of light by substances. Fresnel equations: Freshel coefficient; amplification reflection coefficient; amplification transmission coefficient And, conducted an impact survey of radioactive substances before shipping. In 1990, Hiromichi KATO of the former Department of Agricultural Engineering (currently Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences) of the national university corporation Hirosaki University, the following is the result of genetic diagnosis, the pollen parent is It was identified as “Jonathan”. “Tsugaru”, which has inherited the tradition from old breeders and producers and is loved by everyone, is said to be the second most representative variety in Japan, after “Fuji”. “Apples” containing honey contain a large amount of ethyl esters, which are aroma components, and these enhance the flavor and enhance the taste. Due to the low oxygen condition of the honey part, the accumulated ethyl esters have the characteristics of fruity and floral aroma (noble), and are said to have a great effect of enhancing palatability. The name “Sun Tsugaru” is a “registered trademark” of bagless cultivation produced in Nagano prefecture. What is LC-CA? Long Continue-Controlled Atmosphere-Trademark Registration No. 2224231: Apples are harvested from autumn to early winter, and as soon as they arrive at our company, they are immediately stored in the CA refrigerator. From December to March, it will be normally refrigerated for about 3 days for commercialization (sorting and boxing), but after that, it will be stored in the CA state until shipping. Therefore, since the CA is thoroughly managed for a long period from the time of harvest to around June and July of the following year, you can enjoy the freshly picked taste in the best condition with both texture and fruit juice. What is FA-CA? Flexible Automation-Controlled Atmosphere-Trademark Registration No. 2224230: When the inside of the refrigerator is put into the CA state, the air composition is such that humans cannot directly enter it, so it is necessary to take time to open the CA state in order to take out the apples in the refrigerator and work. In order to eliminate the time loss during this period, an automatic rack system is installed in the refrigerator and computer control is used to always deliver fresh products to all customer requests such as small lots and number of balls. Ikari Apple (Kitae Apple Co., Ltd.) has its own refrigeration equipment, and you can enjoy the taste of the season at any time. “Sun-Fuji Apple”, Which is cultivated without a purse, can be exposed to Sun light compared to Fuji, and tends to have a stronger sweetness. Rich in sweetness made by crossing Ralls Janet（Kokko Apple; Originated in the United States Commonwealth of Virginia（caleb ralls farm）. Around 1868 (Keio 4, the first year of the Meiji era) or (Meiji 4). In Japan, it has been active as a key variety of apple production for more than 100 years in the Meiji, Taisho and Showa eras. The unification of names was realized in 1900, and until then, the names differed depending on the region. It is useful as the latest species.）and Delicious, with plenty of juice and crunchy. This is a selection of products. Only those that have passed the sugar content, appearance, coloring, shape, etc., checked with an optical sensor（transmitted light）, It（ refers to the light that has passed through an object, but this tomato is a beautiful product. Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law; Pierre Bouguer（仏）, August Beer,Johann Heinrich Lambert（独）, transmittance: Percentage of incident light of a specific wavelength passing through the sample（Optics）. A method that stabilizes the absorption of light by substances. Fresnel equations: Fresnel coefficient; amplitude reflection coefficient; amplitude transmission coefficient And, conducted an impact survey of radioactive substances before shipping. Honey（Sorbitol; It tends to be made from leaves by photosynthesis and carried into the fruit. It is converted into fructose and sucrose, which are the sources of sweetness in the fruit. However, when it is fully ripe, it stops converting to sugar and absorbs water as it is.）sensor; Measure the size of the flesh, which has become transparent and yellow around the core. Due to the special electronic circuit technology, it is almost unaffected by indoor lighting and outdoor sun light, and is almost unaffected by outside air temperature. In a general example, an apple is placed on a circular rubber sheet base on the edge of an infrared irradiation window and pressed by hand for measurement. Only high class for gifts that has all the elements of sugar content, taste, and color. “CA stock; Controlled Atmosphere Storage : Air Conditioning”, Artificially change the atmospheric composition in the storage and combine it with refrigeration-Long-term storage of fruits and vegetables such as fruits. After harvesting fruits and vegetables – It has a physiology effect and loses nutrients due to respiration during storage. In addition, although the quality deteriorates, the respiratory action is suppressed by lowering the oxygen concentration – Deterioration of quality is suppressed and storability is increased. There seems to be 21% oxygen in the air. The method lowers the oxygen concentration and raises the carbon dioxide concentration. Fruits and vegetables – Respiration is greatly suppressed when stored under low oxygen and high carbon dioxide conditions. In addition, it suppresses the decomposition of chlorophyll and the production of ethylene, which is a maturation and aging hormone – Numerous metabolism suppressed. Low oxygen and high carbon dioxide in the atmosphere inside the storage : Oxygen contained in the air in the storage is burned with propane gas – Convert this to carbon dioxide and lower the oxygen concentration – Controls the concentration by adsorbing and removing excess carbon dioxide on activated charcoal. General atmospheric composition : 2-5% oxygen, 2-10 carbon dioxide. APPLE : Respiratory activity increases in the early stages of puberty, reaching peak in the latter half and then aging. Depending on the type of fruits, the oxygen concentration and carbon dioxide concentration suitable for storage differ. However, it depends on the variety. Extreme hypoxia – Anaerobic respiration occurs and stink components such as ethanol and acetaldehyde are produced – In addition, the commercial value is impaired, and enormous damage is unavoidable. High concentration of carbon dioxide – Carbon dioxide injury such as internal browning and softening of meat occurs. Attention is required because the suitable oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration ranges are relatively narrow. Also, it seems that it is used in combination with low temperature, but I am learning. Optimal conditions are 1-3% oxygen for stored apples. Also, humidity 90-95%, storability for 9 months. It can be expected to have a great effect on germination suppression and green retention. Fujisaki Town, Aomori Prefecture, is located in the center of the Tsugaru Plain and is rich in water and greenery. It’s a town. In 1939, a breeding test was started in Fujisaki Town, where pollen from “Delicious Apple” was mated to the pistil of “Kokko Apple” and later became “Fuji Apple”. Then, “Fuji Apple” was born by continuing to select excellent seedlings such as shape, color, taste, storability, wood properties, strength against pests and ease of cultivation. It is said that it has been proud of the number one position until now since it overtook the delicious strain that was the number one in production until 1982. Now, this “Fuji Apple” born in Fujisaki Town has become the world’s top cultivar in terms of cultivated area, and has become a famous apple variety known to people all over the world. “JA Tsugaru Mirai” is donating about 7,000 seasonal apples to 14 elementary schools in Nagasaki City. It seems that there was a presentation ceremony on December 1, 2022 last year at Municipal Katakami Elementary School in Kotoumi Katakami Town, Nagasaki City. The JA has been delivering apples to elementary schools in Nagasaki every year since 2010 to promote Aomori apples. At the presentation ceremony, JA’s Managing Director seems to have said, “Please eat a lot of Aomori apples and lead a healthy school life.” About 300 apples of two types, “Orin apple” and “Sun Fuji apple”, were presented, and it seems that they were full of children’s smiles. It is a funny sight.
Honey-filled apples are said to be “sweet and delicious” and are popular, and it seems that the amount of sugars and sweetness are not necessarily high compared to apples without honey. For this reason, it seems that he could not explain why honey-filled apples are so popular. In collaboration with Ogawa Koryo Co., Ltd. (Nihonbashi Honcho, Chuo Ward, Tokyo) and Aomori Prefectural Industrial Technology Center Apple Research Institute, NARO uses ethyl esters, which are abundant in honeyed apples as aromatic components, to improve the flavor of apples. Proved to be an important ingredient. This achievement is an epoch-making clarification that clarifies that the aroma is important for the deliciousness of apples.
Genetic analysis of Komitsu (variety name Kotoku Apple) reveals that the parents are “Fuji Apple” and “Rom 16 Apple”. Fuji Apple is a hybrid of Kunimitsu and Delicious. I have heard that Rom 16 apples are a hybrid between Richard Delicious apples and No. 111 apples (a hybrid of Kokko and Delicious apples). It can be said that the biological origin of komitsu apples has not been completely elucidated because it was not a variety that was born at a test site, but it has its origins in Mr. Kimura’s apple orchard 50 years ago, and has various characteristics. The strong cultivar’s genes melted together, giving birth to the Komitsu apple.
Apple nectar is sorbitol, a substance produced by photosynthesis in the leaves. This substance is transported from the leaf through the stem into the apple fruit during the growth stage. Carbohydrates are converted into sorbitol (a substance in which sugar and alcohol are attached) by the action of enzymes, which are stored in fruits and mostly converted and accumulated into sucrose. After that, as the fruit matures, the cells become saturated with sugar, and the function of the enzyme that converts sorbitol into sugar decreases. The inside of the cell is filled with water as it is. This is supposed to be honey.
It seems that the apple variety “Koutoku” made by members of “Komitsu Meeting” in Ishikawa （Town）, Hirosaki City, Aomori Prefecture, has been improved to have the ultimate honey content, and can be called “Komitsu Apple”.