Allium schoenoprasum var. foliosum
山形県酒田市（酒田市袖浦農業協同組合 JAそでうら, JA全農山形, おいしい山形）
Cultivated in the area located in the Shonai sand dunes, it has a lighter green color than scallions such as green onions and stone-leek.
Sakata City Regional Abandoned Cultivation Land Countermeasures Council, Farmland Refresh Communication (No. 39) (2012.10.5) P01, implementation period: June 28, 2011 to April 10, 2012, Target area: 1.7 ha (field), work content: removal of obstacles, plowing, land leveling, soil improvement, summary of efforts: summarize the results of this effort, and create a model of agricultural management and production methods for the region. Community farming group By showing it in the weave, etc., we aimed to prevent and eliminate the occurrence of abandoned farmland and foster the bearers. Effort main body: Sakata City Sodeura Agricultural Cooperative (cultivated crops: chives) JA’s case of reusing abandoned farmland Coordination process: Under the cooperation of JA and the regional council, JA staff visited land owners directly and conducted land use coordination. As an overview of JA’s efforts, the number of abandoned farmlands is increasing due to labor shortages due to the aging population and concerns about capital investment due to sluggish agricultural product prices. In March 2009, we started regenerating the farmland to prevent the adverse impact on the surrounding environment caused by turning the farmland into a wilderness. We are working on new production methods and efficient farm management models, and donate some of the harvested vegetables to local elementary schools as school lunch materials. JA, which had been searching for a solution to the increase in abandoned farmland, took this opportunity to strengthen its efforts. As a result, abandoned farmland was selected, an outline of the project was explained to the landowner, and the initiative seems to have materialized. The Sodeura area of Sakata City, located in the Shonai Sand Dunes, is the most popular area for growing Chives in the Shonai region. It seems that the producers in this area have inherited the bulbs of this excellent agricultural product from generation to generation in their own homes, and have grown and shipped them as an important source of income in the winter. Recently, with the aim of further expanding consumption, we have brought Chives to the Tokyo Central Wholesale Market and held tasting parties for those involved in the market. It seems to be highly rated for its spiciness and crisp texture. Chives, which are popular as a winter delicacy in Shonai, are one of the valuable native crops that remain in this region. It is originally a perennial plant of the genus Allium of the Liliaceae family that grows naturally in various parts of Japan. It is a plant with a strong vitality, and since it is a bulb, it is difficult to crossbreed, and it seems to prefer a sunny and moderately well-watered land. Since ancient times in Shonai, people dug up the underground parts of Chives that seemed to have died completely during the harsh winter when the snow blew, and picked and ate the yellow sprouts inside as a valuable source of vitamins. It seems that a lot of the grown ones are being shipped. The bulbs are dug up in June, dried in the shade, and replanted around August. The bulbs split during autumn, and the leaves wither in winter, but the new shoots seem to grow little by little without dormancy. Carefully dig up the roots, place them in a flat box with the roots facing down, and place them in a plastic greenhouse at a temperature of about 18°C for a week to 10 days. It seems to remove old leaves. After being washed thoroughly with cold water to remove sand, they are shipped mainly to markets in Tokyo and its suburbs from December to March every year. I also heard that the name comes from the fact that it is used when the leaves are still lightly colored, before the leaves turn green. There is also a theory that it is less spicy (lighter) than garlic (hirutsuki: Japanese-made thing made by crushing garlic). In the Shonai area, it is also called “Kimoto”. It grows naturally in Hokkaido and the Tohoku region, which I longed for, and around Sakata City, it seems that they have selected relatively thick and delicious ones and cultivated them in sandy soil for food. Cultivation seems to take time and effort, such as planting the bulbs in August, digging up the grown stocks in the winter, and warming them in a greenhouse for about a week to 10 days so that new shoots will sprout. It is often used as a condiment, but in Yamagata Prefecture, it seems that it is standard to boil it and eat it with vinegared miso to take advantage of the bitterness and spiciness that you can feel in the unique sweetness of the sprouts, and the crunchy texture and fragrant flavor. Among them, the Jurizuka area, which utilizes sand dunes for cultivation, is a large production area. It is also said that when you enter the village, you can smell the green onions. For those who like it, it will be unbearable. Green leaves appear in autumn and wither in winter. Harvest the shoots in the ground. The dug out Chives are arranged in flat boxes and transferred to the greenhouse. It seems to be watered every day, allowed to grow for about a week, washed with water, cut off the hair roots, peeled and shipped. Chives may be thought to be expensive, but they seem to be an agricultural product that takes a lot of work and cannot be produced with ordinary effort. It seems that it was after 1955 that the government’s administrative intervention in the regional economic structure of the Shonai region of Yamagata Prefecture began in earnest after the war, with regard to the wide-area distribution of fruits and vegetables and the distribution system. Especially after 1960, when the rapid economic growth started, the price of perishable food rose significantly and became a social problem because agricultural production did not keep up with demand, even though demand increased greatly. It seems. With this as an opportunity, the reason why production did not expand was that production was not stable due to price instability, and that the development of distribution channels was delayed. There seems to be a strong demand for it. In response to this situation, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry implemented a fruit and vegetable price stabilization project in June 1962, and in 1963 started a designated production area project in an attempt to stabilize supply and demand by linking large-scale production areas and large-scale markets. It seems that this was later codified as a designated production area business. Furthermore, in July 1963, the Cabinet of Hayato Ikeda (1899-1965: born in Takehara City, Hiroshima Prefecture, 59th Prime Minister) issued the “Guidelines for Improving the Distribution of Perishable Foods” As materials, we will newly investigate the distribution structure, distribution volume, price, distribution loss amount, distribution costs, etc. of perishable foods at each transaction stage from the shipping stage to the retail stage, and improve the distribution statistics of perishable foods. In July 1966, the “Vegetable Production and Shipment Stabilization Law” was enacted. This is to promote the modernization of the production and shipping of designated vegetables in certain production areas in a planned manner. This law was enacted with the aim of contributing to the sound development of vegetable agriculture and the stability of the consumer lifestyle of the people. During the decade from 1960 to 1970, the urbanization of Tokyo and its surroundings progressed, and vegetables had to be supplied from remote areas. As a result, the situation of vegetable distribution changed completely to the modern long-distance transportation distribution of vegetables. A new distribution structure he called the wide-area distribution market system was established mainly in Tokyo, Nagoya, and Osaka. Developed mainly in the central wholesale markets of the three major cities of Furthermore, after the enactment of the Wholesale Market Law in 1971 (recently, the Wholesale Market Law and the Food Distribution Structure Improvement Promotion Law were partially amended), during the next ten years until the country entered a period of low economic growth, the central governments of provincial cities With the rapid increase in the wholesale market, the expansion of designated consumption areas, the expansion of designated production areas, the progress of agricultural co-operative sales, and the rapid expansion of mass retailers in the retail sector, the wide-area mass distribution system has grown. It seems to have expanded nationwide. On November 30, 2022, the prefecture and five cities and towns in the Shonai region held the first meeting to exchange opinions on the publicization of Tohoku University of Public Service and Arts, and agreed to aim for early realization. The first meeting to exchange opinions was attended by the Vice Governor of Yamagata Prefecture and the chiefs of five Shonai municipalities. The public interest university in Sakata City was established in 2001 as a “publicly established and privately run” university funded by the prefecture and local governments in the Shonai region and operated by a private school corporation. The city of Sakata and the university have asked the prefecture to “make it a public institution”, saying that it is necessary to stabilize management in anticipation of the declining birthrate in the future. Oga Shrine and Harunire Tree (Hirooka Shinden): The enshrined deity is the Uganome no Okami. On November 25, 1922, seven years after the death of Takizo Sato in Sakanobe Shinden, Sodeura Village (now Sakata City), a ceremony was held at the Sato family centered on Mr. Kyuzo, the then head of the Sato family. At the meeting, Choryo Sakai (1848-1926), who devoted himself to the development of agriculture and was also famous for the cultivation and spread of Shonai persimmons, seems to have dedicated the following rites in recognition of his achievements. (Omitted) Sakanobe Shinden reconciled the turmoil between the public and private sectors with the unendurable power of the old man, and the traditional Kaen Hundred-odd Town Walks show steady progress year by year, among which persimmons. We have 10,000 trees and 20,000 or 30,000 peach trees. As seen in the Choryo ritual, it is said that Takizo’s old man’s efforts contributed to the widespread cultivation of fruit trees in this area and the increase in profits from persimmons, peaches, and apples. They are descendants of Taroemon Sato, who made great achievements in planting and developing the sand dunes of Shonaigawa Minami, and founded Hirooka Shinden (now Sakata City) and Sakanobe Shinden. Born in the family of New rice field head, he seems to have inherited his ancestor’s will and became “Kyodentsuu-Shokutsuki-Goyominarai” in 1859. In 1863, he was dispatched by the Shonai clan to guard the coast against foreign ships. He also worked on construction of 30 houses for the clansmen, how to handle rice for the clansmen, monitoring of gunpowder storehouses, and investigation of new rice field development. There is Apart from the migration of Shonai feudal retainers to this area, it seems that his efforts also played a major role in the development of Koya-Yachi and the opening of Iimoriyama Village by immigrants from Sakanobe Shinden. One of his achievements is the government-owned forest refund campaign. With the 9-year land tax reform every hour, the privately-owned forests in this area were incorporated into the government-owned forests. In 1890, each village in Sodeura launched a campaign to sell government-owned forests free of charge. Hirooka Shinden and Monzo Kubo, Jurizuka and Tamizo Takahashi, Kuromori and Tamizo Sato, and Sakanobe Shinden’s Takizo are said to have played a central role. In 1904, when the sale of the government-owned forest was rejected, in 1905 Keigo Kiyoura (1850-1942: born in Yamaga City, Kumamoto Prefecture. 23rd Prime Minister of the Empire of Japan.) filed an administrative lawsuit against Minister of Agriculture and Commerce. Waking up Takizo, Tamizo, and others traveled to Tokyo several times as part of their campaigns, and apparently held oral arguments dozens of times. On July 10, 1912, he finally won the lawsuit against private land being pulled back from public land. The black pine forests of the Shonai Sand Dunes are one of the largest in Japan, with a total length of about 33 km and an area of about 2,500 ha, from Fukura in Yusa Town to Yunohama in Tsuruoka City. This Pinus thunbergii Parl forest has a history of about 300 years and is a great heritage inherited from our predecessors. Currently, desertification due to deforestation is progressing on a global scale, but in the Shonai region, the forest disappeared and desertified during the Warring States period about 500 years ago. For this reason, it is exposed to the ferocity of flying sand, and damage such as flooding due to the burial of farmland and the burial of rivers occurs frequently. Afforestation of the Shonai Sand Dunes began with the conclusion that the only way to prevent these damages was to restore the forest to the sand dunes. , regenerating lush forests into barren dunes. Afforestation on sand dunes began in earnest in the 18th century, and since Mitsuoka Honma (1733-1801: wealthy farmer and great merchant capitalist in the late Edo period) is especially famous, there is a misconception that all of the afforestation was done by the Honma family. Although it is sometimes done, the planting of vast sand dunes seems to have been achieved through the efforts of many pioneers and people. And most of the black pine forests we see today are from the feudal era, and most of them seem to have been planted after World War II through the efforts of the government and local communities. The history of the black pine forests of the Shonai Sand Dunes is not a tale of the past, but rather a 300-year history of steady public interest that has continued uninterrupted to the present day. The road is not smooth, and there seems to be a repeated history of failure and rebirth, destruction and reflection. During the feudal era, the forests were planted by the domain and pioneers, and in modern times, by the government. Currently, not only administrative agencies, but also local residents, students, and other volunteers work together to protect and nurture the black pine forests, and engage in forest environmental education in the field of black pine forests. It seems that Disappearance of Natural Forests and Desertification: The Shonai Sand Dunes were covered with natural forests, mainly broad-leaved trees, until the Middle Ages. , in the barren sands It is said that As fuel for salt production was exhausted, firewood called shiogi (fuel used to boil seawater in salt pans) was transported by boat from the forests upstream using rivers. Barren sand dunes are blown up by the wind and become terrifying “moving sand dunes”, burying river mouths with sand and causing frequent floods. Due to the loss of forests, people suffered from the double affliction of “sand blowing” and “flooding.” Afforestation on sand dunes: Initially, various tree species were planted, but only a limited number of tree species could grow on the harsh coastal sand dunes. It was not until the middle of the 18th century that trees were planted. After dividing the area produced many leaders called predecessors. Struggle with sand after World War II: Sabo forests, which had been created through the efforts of our predecessors, declined due to the chaos during and after the war. In the villages by the sea, sand blew into the houses, and people used to eat under umbrellas. Also, when the house was filled with sand, all the villagers dug the sand, packed it in a “sand box”, and carried it on their backs to throw it out to the sea. This lifestyle seems to have continued until the late 1955s. Kobo Abe’s (1924-1993) novel “The Woman in the Sand”, published in 1962, seems to have been inspired by life in the Shonai sand dunes. Large post-war erosion control afforestation project: In the local area, which suffered from blown sand, privately owned forests on the front of the sand dunes were donated to national forests Start. Many local people were employed in the work, and by using local materials such as straw, bamboo, and reeds for planting trees, they played a major role in post-war reconstruction. Fuel revolution, changes in lifestyles, changes in forests In the 1960s, there was a rapid shift from forest-dependent fuels such as firewood and charcoal to fossil fuels such as gas and oil. The relationship between forests and people rapidly faded away, and devastation due to lack of maintenance of forests and damage by pests such as pine weevils (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) spread. Passing on a Great Heritage to the Future: The black pine forests of the Shonai Sand Dunes are a heritage inherited from our predecessors and are an indispensable treasure for the region. Now, we will reconsider its history and functions, and protect and nurture it without destroying it in our generation. It seems that activities to connect to the future are being actively carried out. On the way to the melon production area of Shonai Sand Dunes, there are many large sake breweries. The famous Hamanaka district of Sakata City and the Oyama district of Tsuruoka City. There is good quality underground water in this area, which is said to be the source of high-quality sake. And melons are grown in the adjacent sand dunes. Well-drained sand dunes are favorable for melons. If there is a lot of moisture, the melon will absorb it and the sugar content will not increase. And the strong sunshine during the day, the coolness at night, and the best groundwater. It seems that many conditions are met. On the sand dunes protected by pine forests that block the sea breeze, melon fields spread out like an oasis in the desert and soothe us. During the midsummer daytime, the temperature is high enough to burn the soles of the feet (inflammation), while at night the wind from the sea makes it very cold. This temperature difference produces a rich sweetness, and the Shonai Sand Dunes Melon is a specialty product that boasts an overwhelming shipment volume as a melon that reaches its season in summer. Taroemon Sato, who was introduced earlier, is one of the people who has made great achievements in planting and developing the Shonai sand dunes. In 1706, Taroemon’s grandfather, Zengoro, developed 309 koku of rice in Hirooka Shinden Village (now Sakata City). His father, Taroemon, moved to Hirookashinden with the villagers of Nishichihara and Ibarashinden (present-day Tsuruoka City) the following year, and formed a village of 16 households, serving as a steward. As with Kawakita, the sand dunes in Kawaminami were also badly damaged by flying sand, and Hamanaka Village (currently Sakata City) began planting trees in the middle of the Genna era, but it took a long time to see success. It seems In 1707, the teenage Taroemon was appointed Gorin no Kami along with Yoroku and Kiemon of Hamanaka Village. In 1728, Gorin no Kami, such as Taroemon, issued a petition to monitor illegal cutting of sand protection forests and to control Gorin, thus protecting the forests. Even though it was developed, Hirooka Shinden Village at that time was suffering from heavy sand and poor drainage, and the villagers were having a hard time. So he bought the saplings himself and planted them in the field, and when they grew, he consulted with his younger brother Kyutaro. In 1732, he dug a new river to Shimotori Karasumakibuchi in Kuromori Village (present-day Sakata City) in order to save the villages in this area from flood damage. As a result, the yield has increased, and it seems that all the borrowed rice can be paid on top. They planted millet and oak, and also purchased seeds of Yoshino cedar, Akita Noshiro cedar, Kiso cypress, and Noto pine at their own expense, and planted them in the villages of Hamadori, Mt. In 1745, he became a planter of Kyodentsuu, and in the same year he created a bamboo grove of 25 square meters in Hirooka Shinta village and provided bamboo for construction. In 1749, he began planting pine trees on Mt. Iimori, and from Mt. It seems that it has come to do. Taroemon further planned to plant trees on the entire sandy land up to Miyanoura Village (present-day Sakata City), and particularly on Mt. Sakanobe, where the wind was incomparably stronger than in Hirooka, and it was too far to commute from Hirooka. , Sakanobe’s valley and fields were entrusted to him, and he requested that he build a house here, create a village, and plant plants there. Permission was granted in 1762, and Taroemon himself moved to this area and opened Sakanobe Shinden Village (now Sakata City). He also planted more than 1.81,818 km from Mt. Saigogumi Komayama to Mt. Hashiki, but the planting continued after that, and by 1800 in the generation of his grandson Yuiemon, the number of trees planted was 850,000. I have reached the limit. The main character of imoni, a famous Yamagata dish. In Japan, it is said that taro, which has been cultivated since the Jomon period and was a staple food before rice cultivation, is said to have been named taro because it is cultivated in villages, as opposed to yam that grows naturally in the mountains. Imoni party（People in northeastern Japan hold a Imoni party at a riverside and they eat Imoni and drink alcohol together）, one of the representative local dishes of Yamagata Prefecture, is originally suitable for cultivation in soil with abundant moisture, but we have established a cultivation method that improves the taste and quality even in sandy soil with relatively low water retention capacity. Did It came from the fact that “Wase Yamato Taro” is suitable for cultivation in sand dunes in the prefectural test research. Due to the difference in soil, it has a smooth and soft texture compared to taro produced in fields in inland regions with high moisture content. Since it is grown on sandy soil, it is easy to remove dirt and moisture from the surface, and there is little risk of post-harvest rotting and the hassle of removing mud. Influence of Settlement Time on Early Digging Cultivation of Taro in Shonai Sand Dunes : Yamagata Prefectural Shonai Comprehensive Branch Office Production Area Laboratory, Yamagata Prefectural University of Agriculture and Forestry) , In the sand dunes in the Shonai region of Yamagata Prefecture, irrigation facilities have been developed, and melons and Facility cultivation such as cherry tomatoes The cultivation of open-air vegetables such as open-air tunnel melons, Japanese white radish, and red turnips is popular. However, in recent years, due to the effects of labor shortages due to the aging of farmers, outdoor vegetable cultivation The area is decreasing, and idle farmland seems to be increasing. For this reason, the introduction of new land-use crops that require relatively little cultivation management effort has become an urgent issue. By the way, taro, which is a land-use product, is in high demand in Yamagata Prefecture as a main ingredient in imoni, a local dish. There is not enough, and the situation is responding to outside the prefecture. On the other hand, the production of taro is low nationwide in August, and the market price is relatively high, so labor productivity is expected to be secured. Regarding his August / September shipment of this excellent produce, he seemed to indicate that in the Murayama area of Yamagata Prefecture, he could plant in early to mid-May and harvest in mid-September. To speed up the harvest, plant It seems that it is important to speed up the timing. One of the characteristics of the Shonai sand dunes is that the snow melts quickly, making it possible to prepare the fields quickly, and the ground temperature rises quickly in early spring. The possibility of securing a yield of 1,000 kg or more per I seem to have shown. Therefore, we examined the suitable planting time for his early digging cultivation in the Shonai sand dunes in late August. Wild Chives can be seen widely in the Tohoku region and Hokkaido, but especially around Sakata City, we select those with good shape and taste. I love the history of cultivation in the sand dunes and the love of our predecessors.
The coastal area centered on the Shonai Plain has the characteristics of an oceanic climate, with heavy rain and high humidity. In winter, the amount of snowfall is small, but the northwest monsoon is strong and sometimes snowstorms occur. It is famous as a granary of mild climate from spring to autumn. In the Shonai region, it seems that people have dug up the underground parts of Chives during the harsh winter when snow blew since the Edo period, and picked and ate the yellow sprouts as a valuable source of vitamins. In recent years, it has also been shipped to the Tokyo metropolitan area.
The Shonai Sand Dunes are elongated sand dunes that stretch about 34 km from north to south and are four times larger than the Tottori Sand Dunes. Shonai’s sandy beach was created by the action of rivers and wind. The earth and sand carried by the Mogami River, the Gekko River, and the Hyuga River to the sea are blown back to the beach by strong seasonal winds, forming high sand dunes. Western sand dunes from the sea side, The dunes are divided into three rows, the central sand dunes and the eastern sand dunes, and are higher in this order. Western sand dunes are divided into artificial sand dunes and Meiji sand dunes. The artificial sand dune is the newest, and it seems that it was built by the government after 1945 to prevent damage from flying sand. The Meiji sand dunes were formed by the construction of erosion control fences, planting trees, and other erosion control projects during the Meiji period to protect farmlands. The altitude of this dune is around 20 m.
Chives is a plant of the Allium genus that originally grows naturally from Hokkaido to Honshu and Shikoku. Although it is used as a wild vegetable nationwide, it has been cultivated for a long time in Shonai. It has been cultivated with great care as a valuable raw vegetable from winter to early spring when there are few vegetables. In addition, it has a long history and has been used since the Heian period, and it seems that it was also cultivated in the Edo period.