Lactuca sativa L.
The Japanese name is lettuce, and the etymology is the Latin word “milk”, which means that a milky liquid comes out from the cut end of the calyx.
Overview of Yatsushiro City: The city is located in the central part of Kyushu, about 40 km south of Kumamoto City. It is 30 km long and has an area of about 680 km2. To the east, it forms the spine of the Kyushu Mountains and borders Miyazaki Prefecture, while to the west it overlooks the Amakusa Islands across the Shiranui Sea. About 70 % of the total area is mountainous, and about 30 % is plains. The plains are alluvial fans and deltas formed by sediment deposited from the Kuma River, one of Japan’s three fastest rivers, and the Hikawa River. It was formed by the alluvial plain with its base and land reclamation projects that have been carried out since the feudal era. Blessed with mountains, rivers, the sea, and vast plains, it is blessed with a diverse and rich natural environment. Benefiting from abundant and high-quality water brought by rivers and ice rivers, it has developed into one of the nation’s leading agricultural production areas. Looking at the planted area in 2018, rice is the most abundant planted area at 4,010 ha. The planted area seems to be on the decline due to the decrease in rice consumption due to changes and the production adjustment that started in 1970. As for vegetables, he has 1,999 ha, and broccoli is the most abundant, with 700 ha, an increase of 170 ha from 2018. Tomatoes, which had the largest number until 2017, were followed by 522 ha. Among open-field vegetables, “lettuce” is also on the rise, and refrigeration and pre-cooling facilities at collection and shipment facilities are in place, making stable shipment possible. Industrial crops are 509 ha, and rush is the largest at 389 ha. However, the planted area has decreased to about 8.6% of the peak (4,537 ha: 1989) due to the decrease in demand for tatami mats accompanying changes in lifestyles and the increase in tatami facings made in China. Green Tea and tobacco are also grown. Fruit trees are 144 ha, and Banpeiyu Citrus (weight 5,386 g), which is also certified by Guinness World Records (citrus fruit, pomelo, weight) (initial certification (January 28, 2005): 4,858 g, renewal (December 25, 2014): 4,859.7 g (2021.1.20): 5,386 g), as well as citrus fruits such as Shiranui Citrus and Wenzhou mandarin oranges, as well as chestnuts. There are 34 ha of flowers, including electric chrysanthemums, calla, lisianthus and lilies. As a production measure, Yatsushiro City produces various crops from coastal areas to mountainous areas, including tomatoes and rushes, which are the largest producers in Japan, outdoor vegetables such as cabbage and broccoli, fruit trees such as Banpeiyu Citrus, and ginger and tea. There is However, as the number of farmers is decreasing and aging, it is necessary to establish production technology and a supply system so that it can stably provide agricultural products that meet the needs of consumers as a major food production area. It seems that In recent years, high temperatures in the summer, record-breaking torrential rains and large typhoons, and low temperatures in the winter have all contributed to destabilization of production, making it necessary to develop a production base that is resistant to weather disasters. In addition, it seems that energy conservation and reduction of production costs have become issues in response to soaring prices of fuel and production materials. In terms of sales, although the city’s agricultural products are highly evaluated in the market, they are not well known among general consumers. In recent years, with the development of information tools, consumers. It seems that there is a demand for the production of safer, more secure, and higher-quality agricultural products and the provision of this information so that it is possible to easily know where, by whom, and how they were produced. However, I have heard that information dissemination is not sufficient for many agricultural products that are carefully produced in the city. High-quality, stable production and shipment will be achieved through the spread of cultivation systems based on advanced environmental control technology that utilizes ICT and the introduction of low-cost, weather-resistant greenhouses that are resistant to weather disasters. In addition, it seems that they are planning to strengthen the stable supply and collection system by reorganizing and improving collection and shipment storage facilities. We will support the introduction of dedicated rush machines necessary for rush and tatami mat production, and strive to strengthen the production system and maintain the production area by promoting the mechanization system. Based on the “Green Food System Strategy” formulated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, we produce and produce safe and secure agricultural products. Environment-conserving agriculture that is based on soil preparation for supply, and in addition to efforts to reduce chemical synthetic fertilizers and pesticides compared to conventional farming methods, combined with farming activities that are highly effective in preventing global warming and conserving biodiversity. promote. Promoting the acquisition of GAP, which is effective in ensuring the safety of agricultural products and improving environmental conservation, etc., and promoting efforts to spread global GAP, which is necessary for responding to domestic demand and exports. Under the Geographical Indication (GI) protection system, efforts are being made in collaboration with relevant organizations to enable advantageous sales as regional brands for rush mat facing（A mat woven on a loom using cotton and hemp yarns as the main raw material and warp.）, Banpeiyu Citrus, Ginger, and Salted Tomatoes, which have already been registered. Further promote As a reliable producer of agricultural products, in order to provide consumers with production history information, ICT is also used for traceability such as the QR code of tatami mats, and information dissemination is promoted to enhance the brand power of tatami mats produced in Yatsushiro City. Ubushima in Kogahama Town, Yatsushiro City was a small limestone island floating in the Yatsushiro Sea before reclamation progressed, but in 1899, it seems that it was connected to the land as it is today by land reclamation. In 1962, a shell mound was discovered in the southwestern part of the island, and it seems that fragments of Jomon Shiki (Oshigatamon, Sobata style, and Yausu style) have been excavated among shellfish such as clams, abalone, and clams. In addition, three box-type sarcophaguses, human bones, and iron swords were discovered on the island during the Meiji period, but they were buried as they were, and it seems that they were enshrined in a stone pagoda. In 2003, sarcophagus No. 2 was investigated, and two human bones, an iron sword, an iron arrowhead, etc. were excavated from the inside of the sarcophagus. In addition, it seems that there is another sarcophagus near No. 2 sarcophagus. Such stone coffin tombs from the Kofun period can also be seen on Takashima and Osozo islands, and are one of the characteristic tomb systems of the Kofun period in the Yatsushiro region. Also, during the Meiji and Taisho eras, the limestone mined here was baked in a kiln to make lime, and it seems that part of this kiln remains on the island. City designation Classified Monument / Historic Site Designation date April 20, 1963. At Irie Farm in Kogahama Town, sweet corn is cultivated as a specially cultivated agricultural product, using 50% less chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Twenty years have passed since the start of cultivation, and it seems that they are making improvements every year to produce high-quality products. It seems that only one fruit is harvested from one corn. This seems to stabilize the quality and taste. It also seems to be cultivated by a family and two employees. About 10 years ago, Yatsushiro began using it in school lunches, and along with that, it seems that food education activities are being carried out at multiple elementary schools in the city. In addition, it seems that children have opportunities to be involved in agriculture through harvest experiences at nursery schools and childcare support centers. In the Yatsushiro area, water is drawn directly from the Kuma River, one of Japan’s three most rapid streams, and the abundant clean water is used for cultivation, making it popular with consumers. It is run by two generations of Irie Farm, Toru-san and his father. When there is a lot, it seems that there are 5 tons of shipments per day for leaf vegetables alone. It seems that Toru Irie originally belonged to the Ground Self-Defense Force, but quit and took over his family business of farming. The impetus for this came when I went to Brazil, a sister city of Kumamoto Prefecture, as an exchange student. When he saw that crops were being cultivated on a vast area that was incomparable to Japan, he realized that in order to protect Japanese agriculture, it would be better to grow crops in a different way than before. It seems that he decided to try growing leafy vegetables with a small amount of many varieties. It seems that lettuce has various ingenuity to protect it from stress such as cold. Normally, it is cultivated in the open field as it is, but it seems that it is cultivated in a covered tunnel so that it is not directly exposed to the outside air. I’ve heard that this is very time-consuming work. Covered tunnel cultivation requires a lot of money, time, and labor, but for these excellent agricultural products, by reducing stress, they increase their natural immunity and grow into delicious agricultural products. In Yatsushiro City, Kumamoto Prefecture, which produces the largest amount of tomatoes in Japan, shipments of tomatoes that can be harvested from autumn to early summer reached their peak in November 2022. In the Yatsushiro Plain, a total of 280 farmers produce “Hachibee Tomatoes,” which are characterized by their strong sweetness. Seems to be welcoming. On the 10th of the same month, a large number of staff visually checked each tomato to see if it had any damage, and after measuring the size and sugar content using a special machine, sorted by size and packed in boxes one after another. According to JA Yatsushiro, this year’s growth is good without the effects of weather and disease, and it seems that they are expecting a total shipment of about 16,000 tons. The shipment will continue until mid-June next year, and will be shipped mainly to the Kanto and Kansai regions, and some will also be distributed within the prefecture. “Mizushima Town”, It is called ‘Manyo no Sato（Native Place）’. It is famous as a small island that appears in Nihonshoki（Chronicles of Japan）and Manyoshu（Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves）. When Emperor Keiko came, there was no water when he ate. Then, when a person named ‘Ohidari’ prayed to God, it is said that the water came out. Left as an island outside the inning-Picturesque scenery the coastline curves to avoid MIZUSHIMA. The entire town is a land created by a reclamation project in the latter half of the Edo period. Country-designated scenic spot, designated date is February 12, 2009 : Mizushima = Uyanagishimo Town. Located at the mouth of the Kuma River, it is connected to the land at low tide. Osada no Okimi（長田（Nagata no）王 ; 摂津大夫）聞きしごとまこと貴く奇しくも神さびをるかこれの水島（3-245） ; As I heard from the legend, it’s really good. It’s strangely divine. 葦北の野坂の浦ゆ船出して水島に行かむ波立つなゆめ（3-246） ; Let’s set sail through Nosaka no Ura in Ashikita and Go. Wave, never stand.（熊本県葦北郡芦北町田浦町-万葉集歌碑）“Yatsushiro City”, It is located about 40 km south of Kumamoto City, the prefecture’s capital. It has an area of about 50 km from east to west, about 30 km from north to south, and an area of about 680 km2. The west faces Yatsushiro Sea, and the north is Yatsushiro District, Uki, Kamimashiki, and Shimomashiki. It borders Higashiusuki District in the east and Kuma District and Ashikita District in the south. It is divided into mountainous areas and plains by the “Hinagu fault scarp”.（It is estimated that the latest activity period for the Kouya-Shirahata section is after about 1,600 years ago and before about 1,200 years ago. The average activity interval is unknown, and it is possible that the amount of deviation during activity was about 2 m, mainly due to right lateral deviation. In the Hinagu section, the average activity interval may be about 36 million years to 11,000 years. New The activity period is estimated to be after about 8400 years ago and before about 2,000 years ago. Dislocation It seems that there was a relative uplift of about 3m on the southeast side and a lateral shift to the right beyond that. It is possible that the Yatsushiro Sea section was active at intervals of about 11,100 to 6,400 years on average. New The activity period is estimated to be after about 1,700 years ago and before about 900 years ago. There is a possibility of the Higo earthquake in 744 AD. It is estimated that there was a deviation of about 3 m during the activity, but the direction of the deviation is unknown.etc.）About 70% of the total area is mountainous and about 30% is plain. In the mountainous area, Kunimi-peak (1,739 m) in Izumi town is the highest peak and forms the backbone area of the Kyushu Mountains. Examples of the hiding villages of the Heike no Ochiudo include Gokanosho in Kumamoto Prefecture and Gokayama in Toyama Prefecture. The city is dazzling with its history and natural scenery. The plains are rich in land formed by the Kuma River, one of Japan’s three rapids, and the Hikawa River system. An alluvial plain centered on alluvial fans and deltas. In addition, it has a vast plain that has been reclaimed for many years. Utilizing these abundant resources, many agricultural products such as rush（Juncus effusus L. var. decipens Buchen.）and tomato are produced. In addition to the blessed natural conditions, the construction of seaside industrial land and the enhancement of port facilities were planned, and factories of large companies entered the market from early on. It is in the middle of developing as one of the prefecture’s leading industrial cities. Developed Yatsushiro Port, the largest international trading port in the prefecture as an Asia logistics base. It is a key point for land and sea transportation. It is famous as an area with abundant nature, resources, and a high base of transportation. Kumamoto Prefecture faces the sea on the west side, and the rest of the mountains are lined up, so the climate varies from region to region. Around the Kumamoto Plain, summer is hot and winter is cold inland. At dusk in Summer, a phenomenon called “Higo evening calm” occurs, in which the area becomes calm. The Amakusa region has an oceanic climate, and the coastal area is famous as the northernmost point of coral reefs. There is a basin in the Kuma region in the south, and it seems that summers are hot and winters are cold. The Aso region surrounded by Asogairin mountain has a mountainous climate, and it is relatively cool in summer. In winter, the temperature drops to below freezing, and it seems that snow can be seen. Precipitation is high in Kuma and Aso, especially near Mt. Aso, reaching more than that in a year. This abundant rain brings water sources to various parts of the prefecture and provides vitality to moisturize the fields and people. In Prefecture, heavy rains occur during the rainy season, and heavy and torrential rains are likely to occur due to the hot and humid southwestern air currents coming from the East China Sea. I’ve heard that some management is required to make the fruits grow, color them, and reach the harvest（Light irradiation ripening technology）. Irie Farm in Kogahama Town grows lettuce, rice and sweet corn in Yatsushiro. Kumamoto association of people from the same prefecture, Toru-san of Kumamoto Agricultural School expresses his sense of mission to his hometown, saying, “I will do my best to absorb as much as possible and make Kumamoto better.”
Yatsushiro City in Kumamoto Prefecture is the second largest city in Kumamoto Prefecture, with an area of 680 square kilometers and a generous population. Yatsushiro City is located at the mouth of the Kuma River, one of Japan’s three fastest rivers. In addition to the plains created by the accumulation of sediment that flowed down, Yatsushiro has vast reclaimed land that has been carried out since the era of the feudal government. It is famous and loved as one of the leading agricultural areas. It is also known as the birthplace of rush cultivation, a raw material for tatami mats, which has been around for about 500 years. The birthplace of lettuce is said to be from the Mediterranean coast to western Asia. Wild species are not round, but it seems that various breeds have been developed and cultivated. In Japan, it was propagated from China during the Nara period. It seems that it was called “Kakichisha” because the outer leaves were drawn and eaten. The current ball lettuce was introduced from Europe and the United States in the Meiji era, and it seems that full-scale cultivation began in the 1960s.
Food Valley Concept: Purpose of Formulation, In December 2011, in the “Future vision of each region in the prefecture after the birth of ordinance-designated cities”, one of the main efforts in the southern region of the prefecture is the characteristic of being one of the prefecture’s leading agricultural production areas. Focusing on the above, it is positioned to attract companies and research facilities centering on food-related industries and to promote local companies. In addition, in the “Happiness Realization Kumamoto 4-Year Strategy” formulated in June 2012, based on the concept of this vision, “Food Valley Concept” and develop it together with related local governments and industries. For this reason, we have formulated the “Food Valley Concept”, which aims to promote industries and revitalize the region by making use of the abundant agricultural products of the southern region of the prefecture. The current situation and challenges facing Kumamoto Prefecture include the rapidly declining population, declining birthrate and aging population, regional disparities within the prefecture, and concerns over overconcentration. Under these circumstances, Kyushu Shinkansen opened in March 2011, and Kumamoto City became an ordinance-designated city in April 2012. It was a once-in-a-hundred-year big opportunity. We will make the most of this opportunity to revitalize each region in the prefecture and He argues that it is necessary to connect it to the development of the whole. Looking at each area in the prefecture, the formation of semiconductor production and research bases has progressed in the central and northern areas of the prefecture since the 1975s with the aim of concentrating advanced industries under the “Technopolis Concept”. It has now grown into an important industry that supports the prefecture. On the other hand, the effects have not sufficiently reached the southern part of the prefecture, and the local economy is in a difficult situation. It seems to have become one of the most important issues of the prefecture. For that reason, it functions as a node of high-speed transportation networks such as the Kyushu Shinkansen and highways, and functions as a node of the high-speed transportation network such as the Kyushu Shinkansen and highways, and the abundant agricultural, forestry and fishery products brought about by the vast excellent farmland, the well-maintained greenhouses, and the rich forests and fishing grounds. It seems that a strategy that maximizes the potential of the southern region of the prefecture, such as Yatsushiro Port as a base, was required. It refers to a wide area consisting of three areas in the Kuma area.