Carica papaya L.
埼玉県さいたま市岩槻区, 春日部市（旧庄和町を除く）, 蓮田市, 南埼玉郡宮代町, 白岡市, 久喜市（旧鷲宮町, 旧栗橋町を除く）（JA南彩）
It is said that the name “Ababai” in the Caribbean province was scorned. “Mamao” in Spain and Portugal. In Brazil, it is called “Mammon”. Fue nombrado por el significado de fruta. Traducción en inglés.
The jurisdiction of JA Nansai is blessed with location conditions adjacent to the Tokyo metropolitan area, and is an area rich in taste with harmonious fields. As an agricultural production area in the metropolitan area, various urban suburban agriculture is being developed, such as the production of various items that meet the needs of consumers and the establishment of tourist farms for fruit trees. We are working on cultivating new crops with the aim of creating new specialty products and production areas, and eliminating idle farmland. In 2017, we started cultivating “green papaya” as a new agricultural product with the aim of creating regional specialty agricultural products, improving farmers’ income and expanding agricultural production. It is attracting attention as a healthy vegetable because it does not take much effort to cultivate. In September 2017, the JA Nansai Green Papaya Research Group was established to cultivate green papaya as a new specialty product. 2017, 69 producers, 2018, 91 producers, 2019, 97 producers, 2020, 104 producers. It is rich in healthy ingredients such as 18 kinds of amino acids (general term for organic compounds having both amino and carboxy functional groups), L-ascorbic acid (C6H8O6), dietary fiber and β-carotene, including about 7.5 times more polyphenols than red wine, and is useful for daily life such as cancer prevention with diet, beauty and antioxidant action. Although there are areas of hilly plateaus in the southern and northern parts of the jurisdiction, fertile Pleistocene and Alluvial plains are mostly spread within the jurisdiction. Rivers such as the Oootoshifurutonagawa River in the east, the Ayase River in the west, and the Motoarakawa River and Minumadaiyosui in the center, as well as irrigation canals and drainage channels, form a rich natural paddy field. On the other hand, it is also an area where urbanization is progressing under transportation conditions that are blessed with access to the city center. Under these circumstances, a variety of urban and suburban agriculture is developed, and it seems that pears, strawberries, tomatoes, cucumbers, type of rape, and arrowheads are being produced. Minuma Tambo（rice field）is a vast green area located 20 to 30 km from the city center. Occupying a vast area of approximately 1,260 hectares, it is a valuable green space on the outskirts of the capital. Only 2 to 3 km from major railway stations such as Saitama Shintoshin（new downtown）Station, the area around Omiya Station has rice fields, vegetable fields, thickets, rivers, rural landscapes with Minumadai irrigation canals, and a rich natural environment with a variety of living creatures. Is grown. At the beginning of the Edo period (1600-1868), the once marshy Minuma Tanbo area was developed by building a dam on the Shiba River and used as a reservoir for irrigation. Then, in 1728 in the middle of the Edo period, Izawa Yasobe Tamenaga (-1738: Born in present-day Nogami shin, Kainan City, Wakayama Prefecture, Cemetery: Kojimachi, Chiyoda Ward, Tokyo. Excerpt from Saitama Prefecture Agriculture and Forestry Department Rural Development Division Water Conservation Adjustment and Facility Management). About 390 years ago, embankments (Haccho) were built to dam the Shiba River and wide wells were built to draw water to the rice fields. In order to grow more rice, they devised a plan to open up Hatchozutsumi and turn Minuma reservoir wells into rice fields. This seems to be the beginning of the Minuma substitute water. The substitute water is taken from the Tonegawa River in ‘Gyoda City（Oshi Castle: Nagachika Narita（1545-1613）≒ Nobo-sama）’ and runs 60 km to Hatchozutsu. He used this long Minuma substitute water. With the cooperation of many villagers, the construction was completed in just five months using only simple tools.It seems that they devised the following during the construction. Water was drawn in. Therefore, we were able to take in water without worrying about when the rice fields needed it. Secondly, the water from the Minuma substitute water was merged into the Hoshi River（Water source: Kamikawakami, Kumagaya City）, and the river was used as part of the waterway. Thirdly, at confluences with other large rivers, an “inverted siphon” (irrigation facility or drainage facility) was installed under the Motoarakawa River. When a river crosses a river subject to the River Law, it is a structure that crosses the riverbed with a reverse siphon structure, and the construction method is an open cut method), or an open water pipe that flows over the Ayase River. (A device that guides water to the chozubachi. Saitama City Kataya, a branch line of Minumadaiyosui, which crosses the Kataya River and was constructed in 1895. The brick-made hanging gutter was built at the point where the Kataya-Ochi (now the Kadayagawa River) crosses the right bank of the upstream of the Yokei Bridge. Therefore, the Minuma substitute irrigation water was divided into two irrigation canals, one on the east edge and the other on the west edge, and drained along the edge of the plateau. Substitute water was created, and one of the prefecture’s leading paddy fields was born.) was ordered by the 8th Shogun Yoshimune to clear land and develop rice fields. The west side of the Minuma substitute irrigation canal (alternative agricultural irrigation canal) and the east side canal draw water from the Tone River to create vast paddy fields. Nearly 41% of the Minuma rice paddies remain as farms, but the area of paddy fields has decreased to an estimated 6%. Paddy fields still exist in the three districts of Kataya, Miyama, and Kamiyamaguchi Shinden, and together with the sloping copse of trees and the Minuma alternative irrigation canal, they form a landscape unique to the Sonuma rice fields. The farm, which occupies most of the Minuma Tanbo area, produces taro, wheat, vegetables, garden plants, flowers, and ornamental plants. Minuma Rice Fields is an attractive place on the outskirts of Tokyo that is loved by many for its beautiful scenery and long history. In ancient times, the sea level was higher than it is today, and the area where the current Minuma pond was located was an inlet connected to Tokyo Bay, and two-thirds of the former Urawa city area was under the sea. It seems that many shell mounds from the early Jomon period have been discovered around Minuma Tambo, as evidence that this area was once a sea. After that, about 6,000 years ago, the sea receded and the cove separated from Tokyo Bay, creating countless swamps and marshes. This is how Minuma was born. In the early Edo period, Ieyasu Tokugawa ordered the transfer of the Tone River, which flowed into Edo Bay, to Choshi, and the transfer of the Arakawa River to the west, which integrated the flows of the Arakawa River and stabilized the cultivated land. This large-scale civil engineering work was carried out by local governor (Edo period) head Ina Bizen no Kami Tadatsugu (1550-1610: Ieyasu and his party, who came to Kanto for the first time, were amazed at the scenery seen from Edo Castle on the edge of the Musashino plateau. To the west is the vast wilderness of Musashino, and most of all, a wetland that is indistinguishable from water and land spreads endlessly to the northeast. Building a castle, building a town, securing drinking water, etc. There is a lot to be done, and if we do not control these great rivers that cause floods on a daily basis, it will all come to nothing. While the vassals were at a loss when it seemed impossible, Ieyasu was the only one who saw the potential of Edo and the Kanto region.) and the Ina family. As a result of this project, the risk of flood damage in the downstream areas of Tonegawa Tosen and Arakawa Seisen was remarkably lowered. Tadaharu Ina (1592-1653: Shogunate magistrate in the early Edo period. He set up a jinya in Akayama, Kawaguchi City, and collected land tax from the Kanto, Suruga, Tootomi, and Mikawa territories under direct control of the Shogunate. Minuma-Tamei was built by the Sekiyama Highway）, It was built in 1629 by building a levee between Tsukishima in Saitama City, where the distance between both banks at the southern end of Minuma is the narrowest, and Kizoro in Kawaguchi City, to dam the inflow of water into Minuma. It was conducted. This embankment was about 870 m long, so it is called “Haccho Tsutsumi”. In this way, Minuma-Tamei, with a circumference of 40 km and an area of 1,200 ha, with an average depth of 1 m, was completed to store water. In 2016, 21 households in the Iwatsuki area shipped type of rape to JA Nansai, with a cultivation area of about 20 ha. The average area per unit was 95 a. It is cultivated mainly in greenhouses all year round, with an average of 7 plantings per year. In warm seasons, it takes about 25 days to harvest, but in cold seasons such as winter, it takes about 60 days to harvest. Since they are grown year-round, they use different varieties depending on the time of year. More than 35 years ago, producers of type of rape mainly cultivated cucumbers and tomatoes, and in most cases only cultivated type of rape for year-end shipment. However, year-round cultivation of komatsuna using greenhouses gradually spread because of the busyness of harvesting at one time, and now many producers are mainly cultivating type of rape. JA Nansai’s excellent agricultural products are grown in a greenhouse, so they have a soft and crunchy texture that leaves a lasting impression. In terms of cultivation, it seems that soil diagnosis is carried out every year in order to apply fertilizer efficiently. A well-balanced content of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, potassium, etc. in the soil is important for producing good crops, and it seems that a large amount of phosphoric acid remains in the field. Therefore, it seems that they use original 100% organic fertilizer with reduced phosphoric acid content so that the soil components can be balanced. In addition, all producers are type of rape and are certified as Saitama Specially Cultivated Agricultural Products (Saitama Specially Cultivated Agricultural Products are certified after submission of a cultivation plan, on-site confirmation, document review, etc.). Specially cultivated agricultural products are products that have been compared with conventional farming practices in the region in terms of both the number of times pesticides are used and the amount of nitrogen used in chemical fertilizers. Saitama Prefecture has established a system to certify specially cultivated agricultural products grown within the prefecture, and certified agricultural products bear the Saitama Prefecture Specially Cultivated Agricultural Product Certification Mark. The prefecture has added a standard for “Okra”.The official name is “Regarding the standard for the number of times chemically synthesized pesticides are used and the amount of nitrogen component applied by chemical fertilizers for specially cultivated agricultural products”). Seems to be In addition, the production preparation work is carried out by each producer. It seems that one bag is 200 g (220 g with everyone hanging (weight including bag)), 20 bags are put in cardboard and brought to the agricultural products co-marketing center. The grade and standard are mainly AM (M size of A grade), but there are also AL, AS, M, etc. However, it seems that most of them are shipped by AM because they basically discard the ones that are too big or eaten by worms. In recent years, due to the increase in shipment volume, the conventional collection and shipment area has become too small, and in March 2017, the new Iwatsuki Agricultural Products Co-Sales Center was constructed. In addition, it seems that the type of rape brought in is quickly chilled in a vacuum pre-cooling device, temporarily stored in a pre-cooler, and transported to each client at a low temperature by truck. Furthermore, it seems that they are striving to standardize quality and ensure stable shipments by inviting the people in charge of the trading market to meet and discuss shipments. “Iwatsuki Ward, Saitama City, Saitama Prefecture” : Adjacent to the eastern part of Saitama City. Iwatsuki Plateau in the central and northeastern parts of the city: Besides the Jionji plateau-Formed from the flat land along the Ayase River, the Motoarakawa River that flows from north to south. On relatively flat terrain with little elevation difference. About 5 km east-west and about 15 km north-south, almost oblong. The area is 49.16 km2. It is an area blessed with a natural environment such as rivers, green areas on the plateau edge, and homestead woodland. Iwatsuki place name: 1382 in the early Muromachi period (Eitoku 2): It first appeared as 岩付 in the ancient document Hasegawa-Chikasuke-Chakutojo; 長谷河 親資-着到状. The current character “Iwatsuki” began to be used in the middle of the Edo period. 槻 is the ancient name of Japanese zelkova（Zelkova serrata (Thunb.) Makino）. This handwriting was applied because it was planted everywhere in earthwork（castle）and town. Large rivers such as the Old-Tone River and Motoarakawa River flowed around the area. Until around the Edo period. It was also an important point for land and water transportation, as the main roads leading to the Tohoku region passed through. It was emphasized as a military base, and iwatsuki castle was built in the latter half of the Muromachi period. When Nikko toshogu shrine was built and shogun visited nikko started, nikko onari road was maintained.It prospered as a post town, a castle town, and the center of the eastern part of Musashi Province.Around this time, toshogu shrine was built and repaired: The beginning of iwatsuki doll was when the mechanics stopped and worked on the doll maker. 1871: Haihan-chiken (the feudal domain system was abolished and the prefectural system was introduced.) The clan was abolished and became Iwatsuki prefecture, and along with Urawa prefecture, became Saitama prefecture. Saitama Prefectural officeーThe prefectural office will be located in Urawa. It was decided to put it in Iwatsuki, but there is no suitable facility. In 1954, Seven Town merged into Iwatsuki City, which continues to this day. Land use:An urban area（Tobu- Noda- Line）with Iwatsuki Station and Higashi-Iwatsuki Station as the core is formed in a belt shape. In urbanization control area（about 80%）, mainly use of agricultural land such as fields. In addition, a countryside centered on rice cultivation has been formed. In 1924, the Bushu Railway between Iwatsuki and Hasuda opened. Afterwards, It was extended to Kamine (Kawaguchi City), but due to poor management, it was repeal in 1938. In 1929, the Sobu Railway Omiya-Kasukabe section was opened. Later merged with Tobu Railway and developed as Tobu-Noda Railway. It is connected to central Tokyo via Omiya and Kasukabe. The road is National Route 16 that crosses east and west: The Tohoku Expressway and National Route 122, which run from north to south, run. An area with high transportation convenience such as the Iwatsuki IC at the intersection. There are many agglomerations of factories and distribution-related business establishments. Around the station, we make use of historical resources and the accumulation of doll shops. Creating a unique and attractive commercial environment: Promoted by the Land readjustment project, which aims to create a comfortable living environment. Opening of the west exit of the station and completed in conjunction with urban development integrated maintenance is planned. Southern area adjacent to the eastern Urawa district: As a new urban area, town development based on Saitama Prefecture’s international amenity town concept is being developed. Realization of a new north-south traffic axis by extending Subway line 7: Centering on planned land use guidance and Iwatsuki station in areas along the railway line: Expected to create liveliness utilizing sightseeing resources（History and dolls）. Excerpt from my blog site (mitsuji.jp) on March 13, 2022. production volume. It was introduced to Japan in the middle of the Meiji era and was cultivated in Okinawa and the Ogasawara Islands. It seems that it is sometimes called “Mokka” because of its shape similar to that of a melon. When the Spaniards and Portuguese who discovered mom’s breast papaya and spread it to the world for the first time, it seems that the shape was associated with the mother’s breast. In addition, the fruit has a unique scent, and when the fruit or trunk is damaged, the juice like milky lotion comes out. The etymology of the name “papaya” is unknown, but one theory is that it is a transliteration from Carib. It is a proteolytic enzyme (protease) obtained by extracting and purifying from the milk of immature fruits. Papaya is native to the West Indies from southern Mexico and is now cultivated in many tropical countries, and in Japan it grows naturally in Okinawa and elsewhere. Papain, which was named after it was discovered in papain (catalytic residue (in serine protease, Ser195, which performs nucleophilic attack), and His57 and Asp102, which play a role in enhancing the nucleophilicity of serine, are derived from three amino acid residues. Composition.) Is C3H7NO2S and C6H9N3O2, and the sulfur atom of the thiol group of the thioserine residue nucleophilically attacks the carbonyl carbon of the peptide bond, so that hydrolysis of proteins and peptides begins. Basic amino acids, C2H5NO2 and C6H13NO2. Subsequent cleavage of the peptide bond with the amino acid.) Is a proteophilic enzyme, which is classified as a cysteine protease having cysteine, which is an amino acid at the active center. It is an unripe fruit before ripening, and unlike the yellow ripe fruit papaya, it has a light taste, so it is eaten like vegetables. Green papaya has the action of decomposing fat and protein called papain enzyme, and it has been confirmed that it not only has the effect and function of assisting the digestion of proteins such as meat, but also the function of decomposing fat and sugar. Due to its action, the meat tends to become tender when cooked with meat. It is also an excellent vegetable that contains a lot of polyphenols and vitamins, especially vitamin C, which have antioxidant effects. Since only a certain amount of digestive enzymes and metabolic enzymes can be produced in the body, if a large amount of digestive enzymes are consumed due to overeating, etc., the metabolic enzymes will be relatively deficient, and we will have various disorders due to insufficient metabolism. And symptoms appear. However, this excellent produce is not only rich in papain, but also rich in carbohydrate-degrading enzymes and lipolytic enzymes. Few foods contain all the enzymes that break down these three major nutrients. Ultraviolet rays that cause spots, wrinkles, and dry skin, regardless of gender, also generate active oxygen in the skin tissue and accelerate skin aging, but if it is an enzyme-rich agricultural product, it can be relied on as a beauty food that protects the skin. It will be.
JA Nansai aims to eliminate idle farmland by cultivating new crops. In fiscal 2017, green papaya was designated as a regional specialty agricultural product as a new agricultural product. It seems to refer to both land that has a low possibility of being used as farmland and land that is farmland but whose degree of use is extremely low compared to the surrounding farmland. Abandoned farmland with no plans for future cultivation will expand and grow in the suburbs and rural areas. The blessings of nature and the farmland that has been protected and given to us by our ancestors can be a valuable source of income in the future if we make good use of it, but if it is abandoned, it will just be a property tax.
JA Nansai has 5 JA direct sales stores such as the Green Center, JA Nansai Agricultural Cooperative Cafeteria, etc. By collaborating with organizations and businesses, Establishment of cultivation know-how, securing sales channels, cooking We have achieved one by one, such as the proposal of the law. It seems that the start of green papaya cultivation was the idea of Mr. Kikuchi, JA’s managing director in charge of farming and economics. In the background, in recent years, pear and strawberry producers It seems that the cultivation area has been decreasing due to aging and lack of successors. In 2016, volunteers conducted trial cultivation. In March 2017, JA held a basic training session and started green papaya cultivation from 360 seedlings. JA set up a demonstration field so that the state of cultivation can be seen. In September 2017, the JA Nansai Sei Papaya Study Group was established with 69 members. This excellent agricultural product seems to be a crop that has the potential to solve regional issues such as aging and idle farmland. It seems that the elderly can handle it, and it doesn’t take much effort. Heating in a greenhouse is essential during the seedling raising period, but after planting, it is cultivated outdoors. The only work required is additional fertilizing and weeding, and since it can be done without pesticides, it seems that pest control work is not required. Raccoons and palm civets do a lot of damage to fruit trees in the same JA jurisdiction, but it seems that they are not affected by birds and beasts. In addition, it seems that there are various advantages such as being able to do without machine work and capital investment.
The jurisdiction of the same JA is a large pear-producing area, but due to the aging population, there are farmlands that have abandoned pear production and become idle land. Pears require work throughout the year, but green papaya can be cultivated without much effort. In addition, pesticides seem to be cultivated almost without pesticides. In addition, papaya is rich in nutrients such as enzymes unique to papaya, 18 kinds of amino acids, vitamin C, dietary fiber and β-carotene, and polyphenols are 7.5 times more than red wine. I thought it would match.