Malus pumila ‘Kotoku’
Imagine that it was a delicious apple with amazing honey, but it was surprisingly small and got a high profit.
Koutoku paradise apple worked for about 40 years at the Apple Experiment Station (Tanaka, Kuroishi City) of the Aomori Prefectural Industrial Technology Center. Born on September 26, 1901. Became an engineer at the Aomori Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station in 1928, and became the director in 1952. Worked on apple disease research and was said to be an endemic disease, Monilinia mali. It occurs on leaves, flowers, and young fruits, and is called leaf worm, flower worm, and fruit worm, respectively. The leaf worm infects the expanded leaves shortly after germination, and brown lesions appear on the midribs or veins. After that, it reaches the base of the flower bud through the petiole and withers to form the flower bud. When the stem grows and the base of the fruit rots through the fruit peduncle, it becomes a kabuki that wilts, including healthy fruits. If the fruit is shrunk and kabuzu occurs frequently, it affects the yield. The primary source of infection is the year before the wintering. Ascospores scattered from the fungus (fruiting body = peridis) formed on the sclerotia formed in the fruited fruit. This infects the leaves, resulting in leaf spores and flower spores that appear gray. Forms powdery conidia. Conidia can infect only flowering stigma (floral infection) and produce fruit pods, which later fall off and form sclerotia, source of infection in the following year and the year after next. After his retirement, he sowed the seeds of “Toko apples” that were naturally hybridized in his own garden, and selected and nurtured apples from the seedlings. In 1984, Takahisa Kimura filed an application for registration based on the Seed and Seedling Law, and was registered in 1985. In more detail, Jinya Kimura of Kashiwagi Town, Minamitsugaru District (currently Kashiwagi, Hirakawa City), after retiring from the head of the Aomori Prefectural Experiment Station, sowed Toko apple seeds in her own garden in 1971 and cultivated 73. The first results were obtained in 1979, and the selection was made in 1979; In February 1982, his breeder died at the age of 80, and from April of the same year, Suetsugu Kudo, Seiichi Kudo, and Renichi Kudo from Hirosaki City, and Kiyoharu Kon from Kuroishi City started trial production of high grafted trees. In recent years, based on genotyping, it seems that one parent is Fuji apple and the other is Rom 16 apple. The year of registration was 1985, the registered variety was Takahisa Kimura, and the name at the time of filing was Koyo apples. The ripening period is from the end of October to the beginning of November, and it can be stored until around February in normal storage and until around May in refrigerated storage. It seems to be full of December. The fruits are circular, slightly smaller than Fuji apples, weighing about 200-300 g. The peel is yellow-green with clear pale brown stripes, and the peel is slightly glossy, and the fruit surface is smooth. The flesh is yellow, slightly hard, medium in texture, and appears to be very honeyed. It has an extremely large amount of juice, is sweet (with a sugar content of around 14%), has a moderately sour taste, and is fragrant. However, it seems that among the products sold at farmers’ markets such as Kotoku apple, without going through the former Tsugaru-Ishikawa Agricultural Cooperative, there were many variations, such as those with no honey or those that were a little immature. There are apples that have a lot of honey and others that don’t have much honey. It is said that there are more than 9,000 apple cultivars in the world. Cultivation became popular in Europe around the 16th and 17th centuries. Introduced to Japan from the United States after the end of the Edo period, Kogyoku apples and Kokko apples are typical pre-war varieties. Many varieties have been produced in Japan since the 1955s, and the Japanese-made “Fuji apple” (Chinese name is 富士) is currently the most-produced variety in the world. China produces the most apples in the world, and Fuji apples account for about 65% of China’s production. Malus pumila, the progenitor of edible apple cultivars in recent genetic studies, has been traced to his Malus sieversii, a wild species native to West Asia. Apples that have been cultivated in Japan since before the end of the Edo period are called waringo, and the impression is that the fruits are small. Fukushima’s apples are said to be warmer than those of Aomori and Nagano. Of course, there are many other warm regions, but considering the environment in which apples grow deliciously, the area around Fukushima City seems to be said to be suitable for that environment by chance. In addition, apples decorate the end of the year in “Fruit Kingdom Fukushima”. Paradise apples have a crispy texture and a good balance of sweetness and sourness, and because they are harvested after being fully ripened on the tree, they are also characterized by their outstanding honey content. There are varieties that can be harvested from August every year, and other varieties can be enjoyed until around April of the following year if stored in a refrigerator. The southernmost tip of the Tohoku region, which has the third largest prefectural land area in Japan. This land, with its vast nature, gives us various benefits. Rice nurtured by pure water, fruits that grow in the summer sun. The charm is indescribable. One of the characteristics of the prefecture, which is divided into three areas, is that they have different weather conditions, cultures, and climates. Nakadori District, where beautiful flowers and juicy fruits are produced. The Hamadori area, facing the Pacific Ocean, has magnificent nature and tourism resources. The Aizu region is known for its beautiful seasonal nature, history, and cultural assets. I am proud that a wide variety of agricultural products are produced by taking advantage of the different natural conditions in each region. As of the end of September 2022, rice, green beans, cucumbers, peaches, etc. boast one of the highest yields in Japan, and are mainly shipped to the Keihin region. On the other hand, it seems that they are also actively working on local production for local consumption. About five years ago, in 2017, agricultural output was 201.7 billion yen, ranking 17th in Japan. It is gradually recovering and has recovered to about 80% of its pre-earthquake level. On the other hand, the number of commercial farmers in the prefecture was 52,270 in 2015, and seems to be on the decline. However, the number of new farmers in fiscal 2018 was 219, exceeding 200 for the fourth consecutive year. Looking at the breakdown of commercial farmers, 9,026 were full-time farmers and 29,616 were part-time farmers, accounting for about half of the commercial farmers. The cultivated land area in FY2018 is 140,800 hectares, which is the seventh largest in Japan. Our beloved Fukushima Prefecture faces the Pacific Ocean on the east. The Abukuma highlands in the east, the Ou Mountains in the center, the Echigo Mountains on the border with Niigata Prefecture in the west, and Lake Inawashiro, the fourth largest lake in Japan, are located in the center of the prefecture. The climate varies from region to region. The Hamadori region, which consists of the Soso and Iwaki regions, has a climate on the Pacific Ocean side, with heavy rainfall in the rainy season and autumn, and a cool summer. Winter is the warmest in the prefecture, and the amount of snow is less. The Nakadori region, which consists of the north, middle, and south regions of the prefecture, is hot and humid in the summer and cold and snowy in the basin. The Aizu region has a climate on the Sea of Japan side, with cool summers in the mountains and hot and humid summers in the basins. In winter, there is a lot of snow and the cold seems to be severe. The traditional crafts of Fukushima that I love are those that are used on a daily basis, mainly by hand, based on traditional techniques or techniques and using traditionally used materials. Fukushima Prefecture has 40 traditional crafts, including lacquerware, ceramics, woodwork, textiles, and Japanese paper. Aizu lacquerware: A traditional craft of Fukushima Prefecture (designated March 31, 1997). It is said to have originated in the Muromachi period, but full-scale production began in 1590 by Ujisato Gamo. It seems that Go came to Aizu and invited woodworkers and lacquerers from Omi, his previous post, and actively encouraged them. Since then, thanks to the generous protection of generations of feudal lords, the technique has been improved and perfected, and it has developed greatly. Aizu lacquerware is broadly divided into round items such as bowls, and plate items such as trays and paperbacks. there were. In 1975, lacquerware was designated as the second national traditional craft in Japan. Aizu lacquerware is painstakingly applied using traditional techniques such as taka-maki-e, flat-maki-e, and chinkin. The most eye-catching technique is “hana-nuri,” a top-coating technique in which oil is added to create a lustrous finish. This process requires advanced technology that does not allow even the slightest amount of dust. That’s why the beautiful luster of the finish shines conspicuously. In the area of decoration, the lacquer lacquer technique, which was born in the Edo period, is a representative technique of Aizu lacquerware. Sprinkle powder with floss. Aizu lacquer lacquer lacquer has a gentle and elegant brilliance, and it seems that there is a spirit of inquiry for products that match the times, an uncompromising commitment of craftsmen, and a bond of mutual trust. Lacquerware seems to be completed by a division of labor system consisting of many craftsmen. A single bowl is the culmination of many people and techniques. That’s why you can feel the warmth of your hands. The passion that is unique to the Aizu people is conveyed beyond the ages. The current situation is that the demand for lacquerware is declining due to the change in lifestyle and the difficulty of handling it, but we must not lose the beauty of lacquer, which is unique to Japan and has been cultivated over the course of history. Aizu Hongo Ware: A traditional craft of Fukushima Prefecture (designated on March 31, 1997). It has a history of about 400 years ago when Ujisato Gamo, the lord of the Aizu domain, invited tile workers from Harima to build the roof when repairing the castle. It is said to begin with In the field of pottery, in 1645 the Seto potter Genzaemon Mizuno stopped his visit and ordered him to make pottery. He found high-quality pottery clay in his hometown and opened a kiln two years later. It is said that he made tea utensils, water jugs, and flower vases. During the Edo period, they perfected various techniques and even started making white porcelain. Today, it seems to be the only kiln that produces porcelain in Hokkaido, Tohoku, and Kanto. The morning of the potter is early. When I wake up, the first thing I do is look at the work area and decide on the procedure for the day’s work. Using potter’s clay and charcoal as the main raw materials, molding with windlass. It seems that everything was hand windlass before, but now it seems that it has changed to power. Even if the power changes, the trick is the feeling of the hands. It is said that this is not something that is taught by generations, but something that is learned by the body. When making pottery, the main thing is to make it easy to use and durable, because it is mainly used in daily life. Shaped things change in various ways depending on how they are baked. The charm of pottery lies in how the individuality of the clay is determined by the glaze and kiln changes. It seems to be a highlight of the potter’s power. Aizu Hongo ware includes both pottery (earthenware) and porcelain, including the flow of Arita ware, and mainly uses many glazes such as iron glaze, ash glaze, and cinnabar glaze, creating a wide variety of works. The number of kilns, which numbered 100 in the Meiji period, decreased with the passage of time, and now there are only 17. Each pottery has its own technique and is designated as a traditional craft, and is gradually regaining its vitality. At the “Seto Market” held at the beginning of August every year, pottery shops are lined up on the side of the road, and many people visit, showing a lively atmosphere that makes it difficult to move. It boasts a history as the oldest pottery in the Tohoku region. , Weak hardness) seems to be famous for producing both. Currently, 16 potteries are engaged in unique formation and painting. There are various types of items, from tableware such as herring bowls (pottery for serving herring pickled with Japanese pepper), which are representative of Aizu Hongo ware, to tea utensils, flower vases, sake vessels, and small items. feature. At the beginning of August every year, the “Seto Market” is held, and it is crowded with people who buy pottery from the potteries that line the roadside. Oku-Aizu Amikumi craftsmanship: Traditional crafts of Fukushima Prefecture (designated on October 1, 2003). Weaves made from plants such as Hiroro harvested in the mountains of the Oku-Aizu region, wild grape skins and Actinidia vines elaborate workmanship. It seems that baskets and colanders used in daily life were manufactured as a manual work in mountainous areas during the snowy season. Currently, the main production area is Mishima Town, Onuma District (joined the Most Beautiful Villages Association of Japan in 2012), and the Oku-Aizu Mishima Braided Goods Promotion Council was formed, and many craftsmen are working on braided crafts. Handbags, carrying baskets, shoulder baskets, confectionery bowls, cooking utensils, etc. are made, and are characterized by the unique texture of natural materials and sturdy hand-knitted construction. It seems that the production form of manual work during the agricultural off-season has not changed. Many of the craftsmen are elderly and engaged in farming in the summer, combining farming and braiding. There is no division of labor, and it seems that each craftsman works alone from material collection to completion. Oku-Aizu Showa Karamushi weave (Aizugo Karamushi weave): A traditional handicraft of Fukushima Prefecture (designated March 9, 1997). It is said that it has been cultivated for 600 years. Pure, high-quality raw hemp has been used as the raw material for Echigo Jofu. In recent years, it seems that they are working not only on cultivation but also on weaving, and are trying to brand Mushiori from Aizu Township. Karamushi weave has excellent breathability, hygroscopicity, and quick-drying properties, and is also effective in repelling insects, making it ideal for the hot and humid climate of Japan. Since 1994, the unique ‘Orihime system’ has been used to train weavers.
Kotoku apples are a variety that was born in Aomori Prefecture from the natural crossing of Toko apples. The size of one piece is about 250g and it is a small variety. It contains a lot of honey, so it is also called pineapple apple. It is slightly hard, has an extremely high amount of juice, and has an extremely high sugar content of 16 degrees, giving the impression that it has a moderately sweet and sour taste and a high aroma. According to the Aomori apple history predecessor materials held by the Aomori Prefectural Local Museum, Jinya’s (1901-1982) father, Jinkichi, was an apple grower who held a leading position in the Hirakawa area during the Taisho period. After graduating from Goshogawara Agricultural College, he entered the Department of Agriculture at Morioka Higher Agricultural College (now Iwate University). By the time he graduated in 1923, he was working on brown spot disease in apples. He was assigned to the Hokkaido Agricultural Experiment Station, but in 1929 he was appointed to the Aomori Prefectural Agricultural Research Institute. Technician at the Proving Ground Horticulture Department (later Aomori Prefecture Apple Proving Ground) Appointed as a hand, since then apple’s role for 40 years Working on pathology and its control method, disease control system built up. Clarifying the control of mikesarell disease of apples and the morphology of rot in leaves, flowers, fruits, and stumps, and instructing producers to correctly recognize pathogenic bacteria as key points in control. It seems to have been widely called out. Trying to make it easy to understand with plain words, all of the juniors, although they were half-written, were lined up with sloppy letters in their notebooks and were rewritten many times. When I go to the site, I can feel the effort he puts into his work while listening carefully to the voices of the producers. After the war, he visited Yuzo Awaya (1897-1995: farmer and member of the House of Representatives of the Japanese Socialist Party. Born in Aomori City), who was working on bagless cultivation as a consignment cultivation area for a test station, and he enthusiastically engaged in research and guidance is Jinya Awaya. It seems that it also appears in the novels “Records of the Field” and “Uminari”. From 1952 to 1970, he served as the head of the Apple Experiment Station, and in 1970, the Kimura Jinya Apple Awarding Society was established as a result of his contributions. The award ceremony. It seems that the “Kimura Jinya Award” was presented every year until 2016. The meeting materials of the award ceremony include award ceremony bookmarks and other award winner selection materials. It seems that there is something.
Jinya Kimura, an honorary citizen of Hirakawa City, Aomori Prefecture, won the Minister of Agriculture and Forestry Award in 1963 and the Rising Sun Small Ribbon Award in 1975. It seems that it is intended to commend farmers and foresters and groups that have achieved remarkable results. So far, 59 individuals and 18 organizations have been awarded. Agriculture Award: Rice Cultivation Category, Horticulture Category, Livestock Category, Forestry Category, Special Product Category, Farming Group Category. The award ceremony will be held on January 26, 2022 (Wednesday). Mr. and Mrs. Hishinuma have been engaged in farming mainly fruit trees (peaches and apples) as full-time farmers for more than 40 years. He is ambitiously working on farm management, such as improving work efficiency through sales and increasing income through cost reduction. Since 2018, he has been the chairman of the JA Fukushima Mirai Peach specialty section, and has contributed greatly to teaching cultivation techniques and sales PR activities.