C4-type photosynthesis (dark reaction pathway of photosynthesis): CO2 taken in from the atmosphere directly enters the Calvin Benson Cycle (reductive pentose phosphate cycle (RPP cycle): Andrew Benson and James Bassham in 1950). Instead, it is first fixed in organic substances such as C4H6O5 containing four carbon atoms. It is transported to another cell responsible for the final CO2 fixation, where it releases CO2 again, and the gas enters the cycle. Adenosine diphosphate cycle: ATP-CP system, glycolytic system (adenosine triphosphate : pyruvic acid, lactate system), aerobic system (acetyl-CoA, mitochondria, TCA cycle) synthase ≒ hydraulic power generation (from potential energy of H20 to electrical energy)

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