Persimmon ‘Yamato Hyakume’, Partially dried Japanese persimmon (Koshu specialty, Yamanashi prefecture)
Diospyros kaki Thunb.
Koshu City, Yamanashi Prefecture
Mr. Mitsuaki Tezuka discovered Yamato Hyakume Persimmon and started development of the log in the Shirane district of Minami Alps City. I will write about momme later.
On March 19, 2022, a closing ceremony was held at Yamato Junior High School (Hatsukano, Yamato Town) in Koshu City, ending the 75-year history. Koshu Municipal Yamato Junior High School opened in April 1947, and in recent years it seems that it has been popular with the community as the only junior high school in the Yamato area. In 1975, 2607 people left the nest, but it seems that the school was closed at the end of this month due to the decrease in the number of students. A closing event was held on the 19th, and it seems that students and local residents said goodbye to the school building. All the participants sang the school song, and the graduates graduated here in their third generation. It seems that he said he was lonely at the only school in the area. It seems that the city and local residents will discuss the school building after it is closed and decide how to use it. The school building is located at the eastern end of the Koshu Basin, in an area surrounded by steep mountains, ahead of the Sasako Pass. It seems that there are many historic sites such as Bodaiji’s Keitokuin (Tano, Yamatocho) as the place of the end of the Takeda family. At the Katsuyori-Ko and SHINGEN-Ko festivals, the boys performed the katsuyori corps in the form of warriors, and the girls performed the “shrine maiden dance” to convey their love for katsuyori-Ko. 17 students from all schools. Many of the students are simple and straightforward, and since they live with the same friends without changing classes from elementary school, the students have a deep understanding of each other, and all the students cooperate in school events, student organization events, and schools. We are also actively engaged in various activities in Japan. 2018 marked the 70th anniversary of the school’s founding. Currently, Anpo-gaki and dried persimmons are popular. From the end of September to December, varieties such as Wase Tone, Hiratanenashi, Kappei, Yamato Hyakume, Koshu Hyakume, and Takeda changed to the astringent persimmons that are the raw materials go. Yamanashi Hyakume is currently very popular as a raw material for large dried persimmons that represent Yamanashi. It seems that the history of the varieties began with a persimmon tree in the bamboo forest of Mr. Han Tezuka of Kamiimasuwa, which is close to Nishino. This tree was said to be a substitute for the 100th branch of Koshu, but the fruits are larger, have fewer nuclides, and ripen faster than the former. When used for Koro persimmons, the flesh is very smooth and has a good texture, and the color is vivid. Looking at the city, it is located in the central part of the fan of the Midai River, and it is said that it can be burnt even on a moonlit night.) Is listed as a special product. It is said that astringent persimmons, cigarettes, firewood, burdock roots, radishes, and winter onions are listed in the 1837 “Hara Shichigo Seven Kinds of Products Book” (“Shirane Town Magazine Material Edition”). In addition, it says, “Astringent persimmons have been declared to sell the baskets in the country,” and it is clear that they were selling persimmons all over the country as cash crops. It seems that the persimmon was also a cash crop. Therefore, it seems that there were not a few cases of dispute caused by wide-ranging field sales in various places, and it seems that there is a written rule in Shichika Village in Harakata that shows the rules for business. Ayuzawa Village, located in the southern part of the Midai River alluvial fan, was also known as a persimmon producing area. Kai koku shi (Records of Kai Provin) “Nari from Aizawa Village, Nishi District, Matsudaira Kai no Kami December 2nd offering auction, and bait bag Tomo name Kesei mo dried persimmon monite nuclear support From the description of Tounhi, White hoarfrost Kishite Sweet Nari”, it can be seen that dried persimmons were made. When the Edo Shogunate opened at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate and transactions with foreign countries began in earnest, it seems that there was a movement to export persimmons, which is a special product of Yamanashi. In 1859, Koshuya Chuemon, who was born in Fuefuki City’s former Higashi Yukawa Village, listed “Koro persimmons, grapes, Nashi pears, Gosho persimmons” as the products he handles in a document requesting the government office to open a trading company in Yokohama. It seems that it is. In the modern era, full-scale research and research will be conducted on persimmons cultivated all over the country. According to the “Dry Persimmon Chestnut Manufacturing Complete Book and Fruit Cultivation Method” published in 1914, persimmons are considered to be the most abundant type of fruit trees, and the Agricultural Experiment Station of the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce collected them from all over the country and conducted quality tests by 1914. It is said that the number of persimmons has reached 3,000. In the same book, the seed called Hyakume in Fuji persimmon is native to Yamanashi prefecture, and says, “The flavor is not handed over to Hachiya persimmon, and the water content is larger than that of Hachiya persimmon. Is as promising as Fuji, and is not as good as Gion.” etc. “Hiratanenashi Kaki Persimmon” : In the Shonai region of Yamagata prefecture, a farmer in Tsuruoka Town（In 1885, now; when Mr. Shigemitsu Suzuki of Tsuruoka City, Yamagata Prefecture purchased several kinds of seedlings from a merchant in Niigata and planted them, it is said that only one seedless persimmon was produced. It is said that a kind of seedless persimmon made in Niigata was mixed. “Choryo SAKAI” old man, who sensed the future of a mysterious seedless persimmon tree, cultivated seedlings and worked hard to popularize them, which produced the fruit (Shonai persimmon) that represents autumn in Shonai today. “Shonai Kaki persimmon” is not a carbon dioxide gas deastringency, but an old-fashioned manufacturing method “shonai deastringency” that emphasizes sweetness, and each one is carefully deastringent. It features a smooth texture and a rich, natural sweetness.）, Yamagata Prefecture, cultivated a mixture of saplings that could not be seeded originally among the saplings purchased from a sapling dealer in Niigata Prefecture. It is said that it spread as. Now, the log of “Shonai persimmon” (Hiratanenashi Kaki persimmon) was found in the residence of Mr. Eisaburo Kawazu of Akiha Ward (former Niitsu city) in Niigata city, Niigata prefecture, and in 1962, “Hacchin persimmon” It is designated as a cultural property（In 1931, Koda’s Kawasaki family’s persimmon tree is recognized as a log because it is a seedling that does not depend on grafting. It is a large tree with a height of 16 meters, a trunk circumference of 2 m, and a branching area of 2 al. It is said that it bears many fruits every year even though it is an old tree estimated to be about 300 years old. As the name suggests, this persimmon is characterized by its seedlessness, and is said to be the sweetest of all the persimmons because it has a lot of juice and soft meat. Sado started producing this Hacchin; Eight delicacies persimmon as a product and shipped it to Hokkaido for the first time in 1936. Currently, it is cultivated mainly in Sado as the “Okesa Kaki persimmon” brand in the prefecture, and in Niigata city, Akiha Ward and Nishikan Ward are the production areas. It is said that Koyama, who was working for the Niigata Prefectural Office at that time, was named in 1909.）of Niigata Prefecture as a log of. “Hacchin Kaki persimmon” is called “Echigo seven wonders”, which is a collection of seven rare things that are handed down in Echigo (present-day Niigata prefecture), and means that the rare persimmon without seeds is the next eight rare. It is the name given by. It is called “Hacchin” in Niigata, “Shonai persimmon” in Yamagata, and “Okesa Kaki persimmon” in Sado. It is widely known as a seedless variety that is juicy, soft, and has a strong sweetness. Let’s also introduce the persimmons that have been cultivated mainly around the Kofu basin in Yamanashi prefecture since ancient times. “Koshu Hyakume” was originally called “Koshu Monme”, and it is said that it got this name because it has a size of 100 monme (= about 375 grams). It is a bell-shaped, incomplete astringent persimmon that weighs more than 500 g when it is large. It is a variety that has been cultivated in Yamanashi prefecture for a long time. It is de-astringent and eaten raw, and it is also processed into dried persimmons. Also known as “hundred eyes,” “bee shop,” and “Japanese persimmon.” Carefully peel each “Koshu Hyakume” by hand, expose it to cold air on a drying shelf, and lay it flat to make a sweet dead dew persimmon. Peel the raw persimmon carefully and dry it in the sun, dry it for about 40 days and make it the highest peak that has been prized since ancient times. When dried, the astringency is gone, and when the astringency is gone, the sweetness is felt. The culmination of the predecessor’s outstanding efforts. “Yamato Hyakume”, along with “Koshu Hyakume”, is popular as a raw material for large-sized dead dew persimmons that represent Yamanashi Prefecture to this day. It is also one of the many varieties produced in the southern Alps. The history of the “Yamato Hyakume” variety is said to have started with a persimmon tree in the bamboo forest of Mr. Tezuka of Kamiimasuwa, which is close to the Nishino area. Although it is said to be a substitute for branches, the size of the fruit is larger, the number of nuclei (seed) is small, and it ripens faster than “Koshu Hyakume”. When used as a “dried persimmon”, the flesh is very smooth and tasty, and the color tends to be vivid. Mr. Mitsuaki Tezuka of the Nishino area, who was fascinated by the persimmons of this tree, took the scion from the raw wood of Suwa and made it into a sapling. Around 1918, more than 100 years ago, 50 seedlings were planted near the current Momonooka housing complex, creating a rare persimmon garden. Returning to the story, the true identity of the astringent taste is Persimmon tannin. Among various plant-derived tannins, ”persimmon tannin” is a huge molecular structure in which four types of catechins (EC, EGC, ECg, EGCg) are bonded like a chain, and many “phenolic hydroxyl groups: (-OH) ”. Tannins are considered to have antioxidant and antibacterial effects, and are a member of the well-known “polyphenol” substances in recent years. It is recognized that it has a high deodorizing effect that eliminates the malodorous component from the original (root) by chemically binding to the malodorous component and changing to another component. Moreover, it has bactericidal and antibacterial effects that repel microorganisms and viruses, suppresses the decomposition and fermentation of sweat and old keratin, and can be expected to have the effect of suppressing the generation of foul odors. Among the six major carotenoids of “α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene”, only “β-cryptoxanthin” was found to have a significant lung cancer risk reduction effect. There are several reports of new bioregulatory functions that stand out from “β-cryptoxanthin”, such as a series of reports. “Zeaxanthin”, a type of carotenoid, has the function of maintaining the amount of macular pigment in the eye, and there are reports of improving the tone of the eye by improving contrast sensitivity and protecting it from light stimuli such as blue light. “Catalase” is a heme enzyme that is widely present in the body and decomposes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. The flesh is carefully squeezed and then dried, and the flesh has a deep yellow color that looks like golden and looks very elegant and beautiful. Partially-dried Japanese persimmon: Among the dried persimmons, the water content is relatively high, and the flesh is soft and sweet. As a guideline for drying in a well-ventilated place, dry the raw persimmons to 35% or less of 100 (depending on the size and condition of the persimmons) after peeling. However, no matter how good the conditions are at home, it will be difficult to improve the quality to this state. After all, it can be done by reading the weather and using skillful techniques. The Isazawa district of Yanagawamachi, Date City, Fukushima Prefecture is a famous place in Japan as the birthplace of partially dried Japanese persimmon. The Abukuma River, which went north in the central part of the prefecture, gently flows down the Fukushima Basin (Shindatsu Basin) in the northeast direction, and before reaching the gorge at the border of Miyagi Prefecture, when the northern coast of the river opens, it carries a mountain to the north. , It is a place between the river and the mountains. Persimmons have been cultivated in this area since the Edo period, and it seems that dried persimmons have been produced since that time. It seems that the persimmon tree was planted in Isazawa from 1751 to 1763. In the Edo period, Isazawa was called Kamiisazawa in the western half and Shimoisazawa in the eastern half. There is a person named Shichiemon in a cluster called Mine in Kamiisazawa, and it is said that this person brought a persimmon tree from somewhere and planted it, which was named Shichiemon persimmon here. Agriculture is the main industry in the region, and rice and sericulture are the main industries. Sericulture has been practiced for a long time, but I heard that there was a village headman and a village head who made a fortune, especially in the Edo period. It seems that it was shipped to Kyoto, Osaka and Edo under the brand Nobose thread. In the late Edo period, a breakthrough technological innovation in Yanagawa, Date District, led to the completion of warm-up education, and it seems that mass production of high-quality raw silk became possible. Of the 250,000 silk moth seed papers produced nationwide in the latter half of the Edo period, 180,000 are from the Shindatsu region (currently Date City, Date District, Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture). Isazawa, which was a village next to Yanagawa, was also very active in sericulture, and it seems that the economy was booming from the end of the Edo period to the Meiji era. Even if it snowed, the peak period of shipment was not the off-season, and it seems that Date City tended to have few migrant workers thanks to the partially dried Japanese persimmon. Since it is a special product, it is less likely to lose its price than ordinary agricultural products such as vegetables and fruit trees, and I hear that it is a valuable stable income for producers. In the area, the climate with moderate amount of sunshine and large temperature difference may be suitable for persimmon cultivation. Although it could not be made during the Pacific War, it grew to represent the dried persimmon producing areas nationwide during the period of high economic growth, and played an important role in the former Isazawa village, then in Yanagawa town, and in Date city. I’ve done it. Koshu City, Yamanashi Prefecture merged with Enzan City, Katsunuma Town, Higashiyamanashi County, and Yamato Village on November 1, 2005. Also known as “Kai no Kuni”, “Concerning municipalities which changed characters for names and adopted old provincial names virtually, there are Mutsu City (Aomori Prefecture), Iwaki City (Fukushima Prefecture), Sanuki City (Kagawa Prefecture), Oushu City ( Iwate Prefecture), and Koshu City.” Located on the east side of the Kofu basin, The South Alps cover an area of over 300,000 hectares across Yamanashi, Nagano and Shizuoka Prefectures. Hokuto City): Designated date, November 29, 1993, Located in the southern foothill of Yatsugatake, Henmi manor had Henmi-no-maki, a livestock grazing land for ancient officials, spreading in the area, and Kiyomitsu-Ko settled in present Seikoji Temple area (Nagasaka-cho, Hokuto City) (alleged otherwise to be located at Wakamiko, Sudama-cho, Hokuto City) and built Yato Castle (Oizumi Village, Hokuto City, Yamanashi Prefecture) as tsume-no-shiro, a retreat and backup It is a suitable place for cultivating “FRUITS” surrounded by lush mountains such as castle.). 武田信玄公の菩提寺として, 名高い「恵林寺（His family temple was the Erin-ji Temple in Koshu City, Yamanashi Prefecture.）」, 子の勝頼（四郎）公の菩提寺である「景徳院」, 風林火山（During the period of the Northern and Southern Courts, which was about 200 years earlier than the period of Shingen, the banner was used by Akiie KITABATAKE as a Jinki (the flag for a camp) containing the emblem, Fu-Rin-Ka-Zan. Akiie KITABATAKE-Ko used this emblem on his flag and fought against Takauji ASHIKAGA-Ko until Takauji at one time was driven to take his own life in an instant. “Shingen TAKEDA” was not the first to use the battle flag of Fu-Rin-Ka-Zan.）で, お馴染みの「孫子の旗; 兵法（The Art of War (military text by Sun Tzu, 512 BCE): Dou XIN said, the Art of War by Tzu SUN tells us that an obstinate attitude leads a small army to being captured by a large army. If the small army fiercely fights against the large army without considering the deference of their fighting strength, it will end up being captured. It is not a perfect plan to force tired soldiers to fight against the enemy that is increasing in number. We should withdraw. “The art of warfare of Sonshi (Chinese books about tactics) in the ancient China is famous in Japan, too. Hatajirushi: A flag of Sonshi (also known as a flag of Fu-Rin-Ka-Zan which literally means “Wind, Forest, Fire, and Mountain,” which was the motto of the feudal lord Shingen TAKEDA, quoted from Sonshi (Chinese books about tactics), meaning “swift as the wind, quiet as a wood, fierce as fire, and immovable as a mountain.”), a flag of Suwa Myojin (The Suwa Deity) ）」や, 日本最古の「日の丸御旗（flag with a red circle on a white background）」を所蔵する「雲峰寺（臨済宗妙心寺派-裂石山,（関連; 影武者: 黒澤明 監督, 大菩薩峠: 中里介山（弥之助）氏）」, 武田家代々の家督の印とされる国宝「楯無鎧」を預かる「菅田天神社」（Tatenashi (no shield) (Kanda-tenjinja Shrine) – handed down from the Takeda clan.）There are many shrines and temples closely related to the Takeda family. The major cultivars of astringent persimmons used for Hoshigaki include Ichidagaki persimmon (from Inadani（Ina Basin）, Nagano Prefecture), Beni Kaki persimmon (originally from Kaminoyama City, Yamagata Prefecture), Dojo-Hachiya Kaki persimmon (originally from Mino area, Gifu Prefecture), Sanja Kaki persimmon (Fukumitsu Town, Toyama Prefecture) and “Koshu-Hyakume（甲州百目（匁））”. In the Edo period, persimmons became a specialty of Kai Province. In “Kai Souki” (1848), grapes, peaches, pears, persimmons, chestnuts, apples, pomegranates, and walnuts are mentioned as “eight rare fruits of Kyochu”. Also, if you look at Kofu’s guidebook “Kofu Shopping German Guide” in the Edo period, you can see that the sign of the confectionery shop is labeled “Japan’s specialty fruit shop” and the persimmons are named “Yamato Gosho persimmon” and “branch persimmon”. In addition, it seems that the sweets of that time, “Kaki sweet bean jelly,” were also on sale. The beginning of the persimmon, later called Yamato Hyakume, was Yamanashi, and for that matter, the city of the Southern Alps. In the early Taisho era, Mr. Mitsuaki Tezuka of Nishino paid attention to the old tree of Hyakume persimmon that bears the big fruit of Suwa, and in March 1918, grafted it on the Nishino section of village Kitagumi and planted it. This Yamato Hyakume has been passed down to the Tezuka family for generations, but his son Mr. Koji studied a thermal drying method for making dried persimmons and succeeded in developing it in 1934. As a result, the quality of dried persimmons has become dramatically stable. According to the Yamanashi edition of the Tokyo Asahi Shimbun dated January 8, 1945, it is reported on one side that “export dried persimmons hurray, succeed in drying thermal power.” The export of persimmons, which started at the end of the Edo period, has been repeated through trial and error since the Meiji era. According to the annual business report of the Yamanashi Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station in 1911, it seems that the persimmon export test had been conducted since the previous year. For raw persimmons, Hyakume persimmons and Koshu Imperial Palace, for barrel persimmons, clothing crest persimmons to Shanghai, and for dry persimmons, Hyakume persimmons, Hachiya persimmons, and Hyakume persimmons are made in Shanghai, Vladivostok, San Francisco, and Vancouver. It seems that it was sent out. It seems that the export of persimmons, which he continued to search for, got off to a good start in the Showa era and became full-scale. I heard that Nishino’s Tezuka family, who succeeded in the thermal drying method, exported dried persimmons to the continental United States and Hawaii through Mitsui & Co., Ltd. KK in 1935. It seems that the label at that time, which says “korogaki”, is still in use. Overseas exports, which were cut off during the Pacific War, seem to have started again in Nishino after the war. It seems that there is a record that it was exported for Christmas cake decoration at the request of a Japanese-American in Hawaii in 1946. Today’s persimmon exports are not as active as they once were, but various persimmons such as Koshu Hyakume, Yamato Hyakume, Hiratanenashi, and Kappei are still cultivated in the city. It is said that there are barely some seeds that can hardly be seen now, such as the “Amandou” date-plum (Lotus plant) and the “Nitagaki” that was once used for tea cakes. The results of research show that people have lived in the land of Yamanashi prefecture for about 30,000 years. In the 12th century, Kai Genji emerged, and in the Warring States period of the 16th century, “Shingen TAKADA” dominated the unification of the world. When the seclusion was lifted in the 19th century, it changed from Kofu to “Yamanashi” in the first year of the Meiji era, and continues to the present day with rapid modernization. I love Yamanashi prefecture. “Yamanashi’s complex fruit tree system adapted to the basin: Yamanashi Prefecture Goto area (Fuefuki City, Yamanashi City, Koshu City” March 2017, Japan Agricultural Heritage Certification (Food and Agriculture Organization: FAO (established in 1945). A UN specialized agency in the fields of food and agriculture, forestry and fisheries. (Japan joined in 1951), Associate Member States and the European Union (EU). Formulation of international rules in the field of agriculture, forestry and fisheries for the purpose of developing the world economy and freeing humankind from starvation. Information gathering, transmission, analysis, preparation of statistical data, provision of a forum for international consultation, technical advice to developing countries, technical cooperation, etc.): Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Japan): A system in which the Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries certifies areas in Japan that operate important and traditional agriculture, forestry and fisheries. Saito area; With more than 300 varieties, it serves as a storehouse for Japanese fruit varieties. Toward World Agricultural Heritage Certification (2019 (October 8, 2019)): Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems; FAO, 2002: Biodiversity Sustainable agriculture (There is an urgent need to advance research and development efforts to respond to the improvement of the food self) and Sustainable agriculture (There is an urgent need to advance research and development efforts to respond to the improvement of the food self) -sufficiency rate): geographical indications: GI mark etc.
Peeled astringent persimmon and fumigated S to remove about half of the water. No white powder is formed on the surface, and it is large, soft and has a strong sweetness. My impression was that it tasted like sweet bean jelly, which is a famous Japanese confectionery, and my smile broke down unexpectedly.
The processed persimmons are naturally dried using the cold wind in winter, and it seems that they take time to dry. It seems that mechanical drying using a dryer or electric fan has the advantage of accelerating the shipping time, but it seems difficult because it consumes more energy. Considering the recent situation where global warming is being called for, Anpo-gaki seems to be limited to natural drying. Currently, the average temperature of the earth is around 14 ° C to 15 ° C, but if there are no greenhouse gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane in the atmosphere, it will be around -19 ° C. The light that falls on the earth from the sun passes through the atmosphere of the earth and warms the ground, and the greenhouse gas absorbs the heat radiated from the surface of the earth and warms the atmosphere. In recent years, industrial activities have become active, and as a result of a large amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbons being emitted, the concentration in the atmosphere has increased, and heat absorption has increased, the temperature has begun to rise.
After harvesting, the persimmons selected are carefully peeled by hand, tied to the calyx, and dried by hand. However, once it starts to dry, it seems better to expose it to nature for about a month until it is finished, with as little modification as possible. It seems that the quality of the persimmon fruit will be greatly affected if it is left to the power of nature while taking time and effort. Yamato Hyakume Persimmon is a variety born from the branching of Koshu Hyakume, and it is a large ball that competes for No. 1 and No. 2 among the persimmons, and it seems to be characterized by its sweet and firm texture. The persimmon that has been dried to about 25% is called Korogaki or Shirogaki, and the one that has been dried to 50% is Anpo-gaki.