Malus pumila var. domestica ‘Fuji’
Fuji from old times seems to be usually called Fuji. On the other hand, it seems that the well-colored Fuji that appeared in the bud variation is called the coloring type Fuji Apple.
The famous “Snow Corridor” has appeared on the Tsukiyama Shizu Line in Nishikawa Town, Nishimurayama District, Yamagata Prefecture, which has been a key point for the promotion of Dewasanzan since ancient times, and snow removal work has been released on March 15, 2022. There is a lot of snow this season, and it seems that the highest snow wall in the last few years has been created at the most spectacular point. A bulldozer brilliantly pushes through a lot of snow. Snow removal began on March 7 on the Prefectural Road 114, Gassan Shizu Line, which connects the town’s Shizu Onsen and Gassan Ski Resort. The distance of the corridor is about 5.4 km, and it seems that about half of the whole is completed as of the 15th. The depth of snow in the Shizu area was 458 cm as of yesterday 14th, the fourth in the last 10 years, and the snow wall seems to be a big size that is about 1 meter higher than usual. I called her relatives to confirm their safety in the earthquake off the coast of Fukushima Prefecture on the 16th yesterday, and they talked about the story happily and sympathetically. It is known that the place with an altitude of about 800 m, which is about 2 km to Gassan Ski Resort, tends to be a snowdrift because of the hills on both sides, and it becomes the highest snow wall every year. Yamagata Prefecture is located on the Sea of Japan side of the Tohoku region, approximately 300 km north of Tokyo, and about 3 hours away by the Yamagata Shinkansen. Known for. Surrounded by the beautiful mountains of Zao, Gattsan, Chokai, Azuma, Iide, Asahi and 100 famous mountains in Japan, the Yonezawa, Yamagata, and Shinjo basins and the Shonai Plain are the “Mother River” and the Mogami River. It is a region blessed with flowing, beautiful nature. There, it seems that “another Japan” where people live in clusters, urban areas and farmlands, and village-vicinity mountains form a twill, and nature and humans exist in harmony. During the Edo period, famous haiku poet and Basho Matsuo spent 43 days in Yamagata prefecture, which is almost one-third of the 156 days of the entire process of ”Oku no Hosomichi”. As you can see, Yamagata Prefecture has been revered as a place of spiritual culture since ancient times. The prefecture’s land area of 930,000 ha, which is the ninth largest in Japan, has slightly different cultures such as dialects and foods due to its topography and the remnants of the Bakuhan system of the Edo period. It is roughly divided into areas. Yamagata Prefecture is located in the southern part of the Tohoku region. It is adjacent to Akita prefecture in the north, Miyagi prefecture in the east, the Sea of Japan and Niigata prefecture in the west, and Fukushima prefecture in the south. The prefecture’s land area is the 9th largest in Japan, the forest area occupies about 69% of the prefecture’s land area, and the cultivated land area is the 11th largest in Japan, and it seems to be blessed with a rich natural environment. The climate is basin-like in the inland region, and it is said that the diurnal cycle is large and it tends to be dry. It is also one of the most snowy areas in Japan (excluding the plains around Yamagata City). The Shonai region facing the Sea of Japan has a marine climate with heavy rain and light, and the monsoon tends to be strong during the winter. The prefecture is said to be engaged in a variety of distinctive agriculture, such as the production of high-quality rice, horticulture centered on deciduous fruit trees, and livestock farming that takes advantage of regional characteristics, due to the rich nature and clear changes in the four seasons. The heat of summer and the cold of winter. The harsh nature is sometimes harsh, but on the other hand, it gives us plenty of natural blessings such as cherries, La France and other fruits, rice and livestock products, which boast the highest production in the country. The beginning of Fuji apples: In 1939, at the “Kokkou Apple（It was suitable for the Japanese climate, and it was well preserved in the era when refrigeration facilities were inadequate. A variety born in the United States and introduced by land development bureau in 1871. While Western culture was rapidly imported by the Meiji Restoration, foreign agricultural products and Western varieties were also actively brought in, and it seems that the land pattern that was suitable for fruits was formed as a production area. Since it was an English name when it was first introduced, it was called by various names depending on the region, such as “Under the Snow” and “Late Child”. The Meiji government was finally unified in 1900, when it became a stable period.）” in the field of the Tohoku Branch of the Horticultural Experiment Station of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (at that time, Fujisaki Town, Minamitsugaru District, Aomori Prefecture), the Aomori Prefectural Strawberry Experiment Station (currently Aomori Prefectural Industrial Technology Center Apple Research) I heard that the seedlings produced by sown the seeds obtained by crossing the pollen of “Delicious Apple” provided by Tokoro) in 1940 the following year. The origin of the name is “Fuji”, and it was officially registered as a variety around April 1962, 22 years after its birth. At the candidate stage, it seems that the representative of Ginza Sembikiya at that time also came up with the idea of “lucky”. I heard that in the end, from Mt. Fuji, which is the best in Japan, and from Fujisaki Town, where he was born and raised, he was named “Fuji” after actress Fujiko Yamamoto. Birthplace of Fuji Apples: In Japan, there is a strong desire for experimental research on agricultural and horticultural crops in Tohoku, which are often plagued by cold weather, and the “Tohoku Branch of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Horticultural Experiment Station” was established in 1938 in Fujisaki Town. It seems that some cities and towns were actively engaged in attracting battles when attracting the Horticultural Experiment Station, but the conclusion of the field survey by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry was that they would like to set up in Fujisaki Town. It seems that it surprised the people involved in Fujisaki Town. The test site was opened in April 1938, and it seems that the inauguration ceremony of the facility was held in November of that year. The location is the Fujisaki Town section of village Fujisaki section of village Shitabukuro, which is a vast area of about 18.5 hectares with the current Hirosaki University Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences Attached Biological Symbiosis Education and Research Center Fujisaki Farm, Prefectural Hirosaki Business High School Fujisaki Campus, and Midori housing complex. It seems to be a nice place. At the same time as the opening of the Horticultural Experiment Station, he began extensive research on horticultural crops in cold regions, and produced a number of remarkable results. It seems that the greatest result will be the development of “Fuji Apple”. To make new varieties such as apples, pollen from the pistil is attached to the pistil of another variety (mating), and “seed” from the born fruit is planted to grow a small tree (seedling). After growing, select excellent seedlings and fruits, such as shape, color, taste, storage capacity, tree properties, resistance to pests, and ease of actual cultivation, and select candidates for many years. After trial cultivation, it is finally decided that it is a fine variety, and it is said that it will be named and registered. When a new variety is born from a long time that is daunting and a lot of people’s persevering work, heavy words come to the fore. It’s important, so I’ll write it again. In 1939, the pollen of “Delicious Apple” flowers was mated to the pistils of “Kokko Apple” flowers. Harvested 274 fruits from this combination this year. The seedlings were planted in 2004 seeds obtained from this fruit in 1940, and 968 seedlings were grown and planted in the field. The record remains in 1951 for the first time to bear fruit. As a result of many trials, the selection was selected as “Tohoku No. 7” in 1958, and at the same time, it seems that trial cultivation was carried out by many research institutes and growers. At this point, it has attracted attention and seems to be spreading. The deliciousness of Yamagata’s “Fuji Apple”, which contains plenty of candy-colored honey in the flesh, is well-received nationwide. In the past, it was natural to cover the fruits with bags when cultivating Fuji. However, although it is safe to hang bags one by one, it is not easy because it takes too much time and effort. Therefore, in 1970, Asahi Town, Nishimurayama District（People began to live in the area very old, from the Osumi site, where the Paleolithic was first discovered in Japan, and the Komatsuno site, where stone tools were discovered after that, 20,000 years before the end of the Pleistocene. It is estimated that the Paleolithic people had already lived there. In the Nara period, many settlements developed with the rise of mountain worship such as Mt. Asahidake. Among them, Onuma’s “Ukishima Inari Shrine（It is said that En no Ozunu discovered it and the disciple Kakudo built a shrine in the first year of Wado (708). しま遊ぶ 夢の行方や つゆ時雨: Nationally designated scenic spot, designated as a memorial date October 8, 1925.）” was protected as a prayer place for Mr. Sagae Oe and Mr. Yamagata Mogami, and was worshiped as a prayer place for successive Tokugawa shogunates. With the enforcement of the town and village system in 1899, Higashiimogawa Village, Nishiimogawa Village, and Oya Village were born, and in 1928, Higashiimogawa Village became Miyajuku Town. In 1954, Nishiimogawa Village, Miyajuku Town, and Oya Village merged into one town and two villages, making it today’s Asahi Town. As for cultural properties, there is a nationally designated important cultural property “Satake Family Residence” in the Tokiwa district. It is a valuable private house as an example of a well-preserved middle-class farmhouse in the middle of the Edo period. The “Large Cryptomeria japonica”, which is about 1000 years old in the precincts of “Horyu Shrine” in Miyajuku, is a natural monument designated by the prefecture. The wooden three-story school building of Yatsunuma “former Nishiimogawa Elementary School Sanchu Branch School” is a tangible cultural property designated by the prefecture, and the “Kakuta style lion dance” transmitted to Yatsunuma and Oya is a prefecture-designated intangible folk cultural property. It seems. It is located in the central part of the prefecture, at the eastern foot of Mt. Asahi, the main peak of Bandai Asahi National Park. The Mogami River meanders north and south for about 21 km, and the native forests such as national parks occupy about 73% of the town’s soil, making it a town with a rich natural environment. The river terraces along both banks of the Mogami River are fertile lands suitable for growing fruit trees and crops, including specialty apples. The climate is inland, with many hot and humid days and cool nights in summer, and many cold days in winter. It seems that the weather environment is clearly recognizable. The area of the town is 196.81 km2, and the terrain extends 25 km east-west and 21 km north-south east-west. The southwestern part is surrounded by the Asahi mountain range, Mt. Large Asahidake (1,871 m) and Mt. Small Asahidake (1,648 m), which are said to be the Tohoku Alps, and the southeastern part is surrounded by the Shirataka Mountains. Blessed with. “Apple cultivation” has a long history, dating back to 1887. Since then, the formation of a nationwide production center has been promoted by establishing a cultivation technology system backed by systematic fruit tree promotion measures that make the best use of the land and enthusiastic research by growers. It is a famous story as a person involved in agriculture. In 1970, the “Bagless Fuji Study Group” was established by 63 apple-producing farmers. The study group played a central role in shifting from the common sense of the time to marsupial cultivation to non-bag cultivation. “無袋 Fuji”, which has a higher sugar content and better taste than marsupials, will be traded at a high price in the Kanda market (currently Ota market) three years later, and the town-wide “無袋 Fuji” It seems that cultivation has been spurred. In 1981, it established itself as the best production area for “無袋 Fuji” in terms of unit shipment price, and in 1982, it won the Asahi Shimbun Industry Award. Furthermore, in order to establish an apple brand production area, we are actively promoting the spread of “selected excellent strain Fuji” and the renewal of Nakate varieties to excellent varieties such as “Shuyo” and “Shinano Sweet”. Also, since 2004, it has been exporting apples to Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia, etc. as a new sales channel expansion. “Son”, This variety should have dry calyxes, be moderately firm to the touch and not too soft, and be heavy to the touch.）, Yamagata Prefecture, was the first in Japan to work on “No bag Fuji”. Producers who were involved from the beginning when they saw apples that had grown out of their bags and thought that it would be possible to grow them without bags. Focusing on the shape of the tree, the new branches grow 30 cm until June, after which they are actually nourished, and the fruit is thinned three times. It seems that he proceeded with steady research in terms of technology and steadily put it into practice. The bagless Fuji made in this way has a sugar content that rises by about 2 degrees and an increased acidity, which seems to be what it used to be. As a result of selling it by tasting it in Tokyo, the price was higher than that of marsupial apples from the second year. When it comes to taste, it is said to be the best in Japan and highly evaluated by market participants in Tokyo. It seems that you can see the butt of the apple fruit so that it can be seen through the sun. It seems to be picked that it looks slightly amber. It seems to wait until this point before shipping. I heard that if you break one piece, you will find a large amount of honey, and if you cheek it, the sweetness and aroma will be the best. The mechanism by which honey enters is that plants photosynthesize with leaves to make glucose and other nutrients. In the case of apples, it seems that glucose is converted to sorbitol (a type of sugar alcohol) by the action of enzymes and actually sent. This is promoted during the ripening stage, and it seems that a large amount of sorbitol overflows into the gaps between cells. I heard that this is honey, which is proportional to the degree of maturity. You can add honey if it is fully ripe in any production area. However, due to the shipping time and climatic conditions, it seems that there are many cases where honey must be harvested before it enters. Yamagata Prefecture can be said to be a blessed land where apples can be shipped because the ripeness and harvesting seasons, when the original taste of apples is produced, match perfectly. It seems that the beginning of apple making in Asahi Town was in 1887 when Mr. Kihei Sugai and Mr. Shotaro Suzuki planted 2-3one tenth hectare in the cleared land of Busan. However, at that time, it was not possible to grow it well due to insufficient fertilization management and pest control. Around 1911, the landowner Mr. Jinnai Takeda (Nakano, Yamagata City) picked up Jonathan Apple and Yamato Nishiki Apple saplings from the fruit tree test site in the prefecture and planted them, but it seems that they did not succeed. The garden was rented by Mr. Katsujiro Sugai, who was in charge at the time, and it seems that the red jade tree at that time still remains. And around 1921, Mr. Itaro Imai of Shinjuku finally succeeded in cultivation. Mr. Katsujiro Sugai, who rented the garden in Wago, Kamayama consulted with Mr. Imai and was able to devise a cultivation method suitable for the Wago area and succeed. After the war, apple cultivation began to be carried out in various parts of the town, and in the 1965s, the cultivation of “No bag Fuji Apple”, which was difficult at that time, was established, and the price was high in the central market, attracting attention from apple producing areas nationwide. It seems that it has come to be done. In this way, it is said that apple cultivation grew up in the town’s core industry, both in name and reality. Coloring systems have been discovered in various places as bud mutations since around 1966, and it seems that about 90 to 100 systems have been confirmed so far. Since it is difficult for honey to enter the dressing system, it seems that it looks beautiful and turns brown (browning) after cutting, which tends to be relatively slow. The honey part seems to change color relatively quickly. In recent years, I have heard from an acquaintance’s farmer that the mainstream color-based sport is called “colored sport”. Coloring seems to be important in the market. Also, it seems that it has become difficult to color due to global warming in recent years. In Japan, the larger the apples, the higher the price, so it seems that the producers manage the fruit set while paying attention to the fruit picking time and the fruit set burden so that large fruits can be harvested. However, in reality, the size of the fruit varies greatly depending on the year and the tree, and it seems difficult to stably produce large fruits every year. Fruit size is a trait that fluctuates greatly depending on the environment, so it is thought that there are many factors that affect it. I still want to know the results of my research.
Coloring management (extracted from NARO) : Cultivation management to improve the degree of coloration of fruits. As the fruits approach the maturity stage, the content of chlorophyll, which is the main component of green in the pericarp, decreases, and red anthocyanin pigments and yellows. The number of xanthophyll dyes in the system tends to increase. At this time, the degree of coloring seems to change depending on the nutritional status of the tree and the environmental conditions. Since fruits with better coloring are traded at a higher price, producers try to improve the degree of coloring of fruits by cultivation management and produce fruits with good appearance. In general, the pigment is based on anabolic products made from leaves, so the higher the sugar content of the fruit, the better the coloring. Over-fruiting, excessive leaf picking, abnormal leaf fall, etc. reduce coloration. In addition, since coloring requires direct sunlight on the fruit surface, it tends to be suppressed even when the branches and leaves are crowded and the inside of the canopy is dark. Furthermore, in soils with high nitrogen content and poor drainage gardens, the vegetative growth of the trees continues until late, so the coloring of the fruits seems to be worse. As coloring management technology, methods by direct involvement in trees such as defoliation, ball turning, bagging, hanging, and removal of long branches, methods by indirect involvement in trees by using reflective materials, and chemicals using plant growth regulators. There seems to be a method used. Specifically, defoliation is mainly carried out on apples. Wase varieties are harvested 15 to 20 days before harvest, Nakate varieties are performed 20 to 30 days before, and Okute varieties are performed 30 to 40 days before, and it seems that the leaves that shade the fruits, mainly the plexus leaves, are removed. For Okute varieties such as FUJI apple, it is divided into two or more times, the first time is light and the second and subsequent times are slightly stronger. In this case, care must be taken because strong plucking worsens coloring and adversely affects flower bud formation. Wase species also seem to be careful about the occurrence of sunburn. Tamaki is the work of turning the fruits by hand before harvesting and shining light directly on the back of the sun, which is inferior in coloring, and seems to be carried out on apples. When the fruit is colored by about 30%, perform the first ball spinning, and then perform the second spinning together with leaf picking. The sack is stem borer (mainly two dominant species, Carposina sasakii Matumura parasitizes only the fruit. Most of the spawning is in the calyx, and the larvae also eat into the fruit from this vicinity. Initially, fruit juice comes out from the site, and it hardens like tears. It seems that the larvae eat the fruit flesh irregularly and eventually the fruit heart. At the final age, they open a hole to the fruit surface and escape. This larva reaches the fruit core in a straight line like a needle stick, so it seems that there is another name for Haritooshi. It seems that there is no damage in bag cultivation because it lays eggs only on the fruit. It is about 18 mm, and the aged larva is about 12 mm in length. The oriental fruit moth has a wider area of feeding on the fruit than Carposina sasakii Matumura, but it seems to be more from the trunk to the bottom. A lump of fruit juice is formed. It is difficult to distinguish it from the previous species due to the feeding damage in the fruit, but it seems that it rarely damages the entire fruit flesh like Carposina sasakii Matumura. It seems that it causes damage called heart breakage with the tip dying. Also, if damage occurs in bag cultivation, it seems to be this species. The opening of the adult larva’s wing is about 12 mm, and there are 7 pairs of white short lines in the front green of the front wing. The ripe larvae were started to control (about 10 mm in length), but it seems to be effective in improving the coloring of fruits. For branch suspension and prolapse removal, lift the drooping branches, remove the shoots and main branches in the crowded areas of the branches and leaves, and remove the powerful shoots generated from the back of the side branches so that sufficient light can enter the inside of the canopy. The work to do. It seems to be done from summer to autumn. Reflective materials are used in many fruit trees, and it seems that a reflective sheet is installed under the canopy from the time when coloring begins to shine light on the fruits from the ground surface. Coloring may progress faster than fruit ripening, so be careful not to pick it too early. Plant growth regulators used for coloring management include leaf-picking agents and color-promoting agents, and it seems that the leaf-picking agents are sprayed before the leaf-picking time to reduce the leaf-picking work. Spraying at high temperature seems to cause excessive defoliation. Also, weak trees are too effective, so it is better to avoid spraying. As a color-promoting agent, some drugs showing maturation-promoting action and C12H18O3 (fatty acid methyl ester are isolated as an aroma component of jasmine, and free acid is isolated as a plant growth inhibitor produced by phytopathogenic bacteria. Identified as an endogenous growth inhibitor. Jasmonic acid has various physiology such as chlorophyll degradation, aging, stalk formation, ethylene biosynthesis, promotion of delamination, axillary bud, embryo formation, seed germination inhibition and injury response. It seems to show an action. The concentration is high in the part where the saplings in the early stage of germination are active and in the flower buds. ) Seems to be being developed as a main component.
The Fuji apple coloring system has been discovered in various places as a sport since around 1966, and it seems that more than 90 systems have been confirmed so far. In Japan, the larger the ball, the higher the price of apples, so producers pay attention to the timing of fruit picking and the burden of fruit set so that large fruits can be obtained. However, in reality, the size of the fruit varies greatly depending on the year and the tree, and it seems that it is difficult to stably collect large fruits every year. The size of the fruit seems to be a combination of traits that fluctuate greatly due to the natural environment.
FUJI apple, produced in Fujisaki Town, Minamitsugaru District, Aomori Prefecture, is an excellent variety that represents Yamagata Prefecture. When the fruit is split in half, there is plenty of yellow honey in the middle and we open our eyes and run to taste. This is a bagless cultivation (known throughout the country as a production area that originated in Asahi Town, Nishimurayama-gun, and also as a production area for Sun Fuji apple that is produced by bagless cultivation without a bag of exquisite bags). It seems that high technology is required because of the benefits of.