Pholiota nameko (T. Itô) S. Ito & S. Imai(=Collybia nameko T. Ito)
It is said that the slime that covers the whole area has made what was named “Numerako” dull.
The unexplored Akiyama Township is the area along the Nakatsu River that runs through Tsunan Town, Nakauonuma District, Niigata Prefecture and Sakae Village, Shimominochi District, Nagano Prefecture. When you see Mt. Naeba from Yuzawa, it is around the valley on the other side of the mountain. It is a general term for villages scattered in the upper reaches of the Nakatsu River, a tributary of the Shinano River. The beauty of the valley, which approaches the mountain surface, is known as a famous spot for autumn leaves, and is a region where old-fashioned lifestyles such as the Heike no Ochudo legend and traditional matagi hunters culture remain strong. The “Shinetsu Akiyama Township Association” has been formed in Tsunan and Sakae towns and villages to promote hospitality. Also, although it is a splendid mountain village, it is a heavy snowfall area. It has been selected as one of the “100 Best Unexplored Regions in Japan”. Until recent years, heavy snowfall made it inaccessible and the village was isolated. In the past, an isolated village was hit by famine and was wiped out. There are many hot springs, and Kiriake Hot Spring in the innermost part seems to be a famous place for lovers as a hand-dug hot spring where the source springs out when you dig a river beach with a shovel. Tsunan Town, Nakauonuma District is located at the southernmost tip of Niigata Prefecture, on the border of Nagano Prefecture where the Chikuma River changes its name to the Shinano River. The Shinano River, which flows from the southwest to the northeast of the town, and the Shikumi, Nakatsu, and Kiyotsu rivers that join it form a magnificent river terrace. While it has a long winter period and is one of the most heavy snowfall areas in Japan, it is blessed with a cool breeze in the northwest in summer, and it seems that a refreshing climate like a plateau continues. It is said that people have lived and built culture since prehistoric times using the river terraces in the entire town, and it is said that the remains of the Jomon period can be seen in various parts of the town. In 1901, the six villages were Sotomaru, Kamigo, Ashigasaki, Akinari, Nakafukami, and Shimofunato. Was born. After that, in 1956, I heard that the boundary between Tashiro in the town and Maibara in the former Nakazato village was changed to the present. Meteorology: January-December 2020, Observation point: Prefectural High Cold Region Agricultural Technology Center, Altitude: 452 m, average temperature 11.8 degrees Cumulative rainfall 2,077 mm Cumulative snowfall 756cm, deepest snowfall 119 cm. Area: field 2,000.9 ha, field 1,248.6 ha, orchard: 2.3 ha, pasture 254.0 ha Forest 10,848.3 ha Others 2,666.9 ha Total area 17,021.0 hectares (according to the Agriculture and Forestry Promotion Division). Needless to say, the reason why Niigata Prefecture has embarked on the promotion of horticulture seems to be the decrease in demand for staple food rice. I hear that the prefecture’s agricultural output is declining due to the impact of the slump in rice prices. For that reason, the efforts of neighboring prefectures, which have promoted horticulture and increased agricultural output, are said to be a great source of inspiration. Aomori, Akita, Yamagata, and Nagano prefectures, which have been focusing on horticulture prior to the prefecture, seem to have been increasing their agricultural output in recent years. In particular, Akita Prefecture, which promotes the creation of a gardening mega housing complex, seems to have been focusing on expanding the production of green soybeans. As a result, it seems that Akita Prefecture has jumped to the top of the nation in terms of the shipment volume of green soybeans in the central wholesale market in the Keihin area (2019). It is said that it is a great stimulus for Niigata Prefecture, which also specializes in green soybeans. It seems that it is not that they have not promoted horticulture at all. According to the prefecture, some kind of horticultural promotion measures have been taken for some time. However, the results are not comparable to those of neighboring prefectures, and looking at the item composition of agricultural output, rice cultivation accounts for 59%, while horticulture (total of vegetables, fruits and flowers) accounts for 20%. Seems to stay in. In the process of formulating the basic strategy, the prefecture itself verifies the results of the horticultural promotion measures that it has taken so far. Although there have been movements to introduce horticulture, most of the efforts are made by individual farmers, and it seems that they have not yet become a production area. While there are areas where large production areas such as watermelons, lilies (cut flowers), and Okesa persimmons are formed, it seems that there are many small and medium-sized production areas where the maintenance of machinery and facilities is delayed and it is not possible to meet the collective demand. Sales of green soybean and Le Lectier Pear are expanding in the metropolitan area, but it seems that there is no subsequent brand. Based on these points, Mr. Hideyo Hanazumi, the governor of Niigata Prefecture, and the heads of related organizations have held discussions to promote horticulture in earnest, and it seems that the basic strategy was announced on July 31, 2019. By 2024, the final year, it has set goals such as “doubling the number of production areas with sales of 100 million yen or more”, “aiming to increase the cultivation area by 1000 hectares”, and “expanding the number of new farmers engaged in horticulture”. It seems. In order to achieve these goals, it seems that they are envisioning both expanding the area of existing production areas and having rice farmers introduce horticultural crops. It seems that 40% of the prefecture’s horticultural output is concentrated in Niigata City. Looking at the Kaetsu region, which includes Niigata City, Shibata City and Murakami City, the market share seems to exceed 60%. It will be difficult to reach 1,000 hectares even if we say “further expansion” to farmers who have been engaged in horticultural production in the Kaetsu region. It seems that the prefecture’s aim is to create a mood for the entire prefecture, including the Joetsu and Chuetsu regions, where there have been few gardening efforts, and to achieve the numerical targets. For this reason, instead of narrowing down the items as in Akita Prefecture’s green soybean, it seems that it is taking an easy-to-approach method so that items can be selected according to the characteristics of each production area. It seems that there are 414 horticultural production areas in the prefecture, but only 12% of the production areas are over 100 million yen, and most of them are small-scale production areas. Conversely, it seems that there are many production areas that have the potential to grow into large production areas. Based on the characteristic that small production areas are scattered, it seems that a system to support the promotion of horticulture has been built. The command tower that promotes this basic strategy is the “Regional Promotion Team” located in the 13 Regional Promotion Bureaus in the prefecture. The members seem to be the person in charge of the prefecture (promotion bureau), municipalities, JA, land improvement districts, farmer representatives, and distributors (actual consumers). It seems that this member will coordinate everything from item selection to market development. Below this, there is a “production area support team” that is a working unit for each production area, and it seems that it is accompanied by the production area and farmers. It seems that it has supported the maintenance of machines and facilities under the names of “horticultural attack support project” and “agriculture, forestry and fishery comprehensive promotion project” for management bodies engaged in horticulture. I heard that while continuing this, a new business “Large-scale horticultural production area creation business” was established. It seems that the production areas that engage in horticulture in the field maintenance area (agricultural land-owning qualified corporations, farmer organizations, JA, etc.) will subsidize the machinery and facilities required to build a horticultural production and distribution system. The area requirement is about 30 hectares or more (in the case of open-field horticulture, facility horticulture is 2 hectares or more), and in addition to 50% subsidy for national projects, up to 10% for prefectures and up to 25% for municipalities. (The subsidy rate varies depending on the municipality and business content). It seems that there is also a large-scale horticultural production area creation project that the prefecture subsidizes within 50% with an area requirement of approximately 10 hectares or more (in the case of open-field horticulture, facility horticulture is 0.5 hectares or more). In addition, regardless of the area requirement, it is said that it will include support for soft efforts to solve problems such as securing a leader, introducing technology, and developing sales channels, aiming for a production area of 100 million yen. The prefecture seems to have budgeted about 400 million yen for the entire horticultural promotion including the large-scale horticultural production area creation project. In addition to the prefecture, the JA organization has also launched its own horticultural promotion measures. The Niigata Agricultural Cooperative Central Association’s “Niigata Agricultural Support Fund” is said to correspond to this. Specifically, it seems that they will work on new horticulture or support the efforts of farmers to expand the scale in the production area aiming for sales of 100 million yen. In addition, as a preparatory stage aiming for 100 million yen, it seems that it is also supporting the production areas that promote new horticultural items and the farmers who are working to expand sales channels. According to the basic strategy for horticultural promotion, Tsunan Town seems to be a typical production area that works on large-scale production of vegetables. In the town, a total of about 57.7 billion yen was invested in the state-owned Naeba Sanroku Comprehensive Agricultural Land Development Project (1973-2003) to create 650 hectares of upland. As a result, irrigation drainage has been fully developed, and efficient and dynamic agriculture is being developed in the fields of 1 to 3 hectares. Typical horticultural items include asparagus, carrots, various flowers, and sweet corn. Among them, the carrots that are harvested after wintering in the fields and removing snow are branded as “Tsunan no Yukishita Carrots”, and it seems that they were registered as a geographical indication (GI) protection system in 2019. The town has 1450 hectares of paddy fields and seems to be the production center of Koshihikari Rice from Uonuma. However, due to the recent decline in rice prices, rice production seems to be steadily declining. It seems that the position of the horticultural department is increasing in order to cover the decline in the rice farming department. Under these circumstances, six management bodies in the town started producing cabbage for processing in 2020. JA Tsunan Town has many years of experience in producing vegetables for processing. Since the 1970s, he has contracted with a tomato processing maker to produce tomatoes for processing, and has also contracted with pickle companies inside and outside the prefecture to produce daikon radish and turnip greens. The town was also adopted for the national smart agricultural technology development and demonstration project (project name is “demonstration of labor saving and productivity improvement by introducing smart agriculture in open-field vegetable production areas in heavy snowfall areas”), and cabbage for processing is in this project. It seems that it is an item to work on. It seems that it was a perfect time to verify how much labor can be saved and productivity can be improved by utilizing automatic driving tractors, radio-controlled weeders, and passenger harvesters used for tillage. Examination results and awards ceremony for the “3rd Award for Excellent Businesses for Expanding Production and Utilization of Domestic Vegetables” : Date: March 23, 2010, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Auditorium. Organizer: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Agriculture and Livestock Industries Corporation. Producers (Tsunanmachi Agricultural Cooperative Association), distributors (Hinodeya Naito Store Co., Ltd.), and actual consumers (actual sellers, Seven-Eleven Japan Co., Ltd.) work together to prepare prepared foods and pickles. Asparagus contract transactions have been practiced for many years. On the production side, in addition to improving quality by making soil, it seems that standards are set and cultivation guidance is given to unify the cultivation system to equalize quality and maintain freshness with a vacuum cooling device. In terms of distribution, we will make efforts to prevent foreign matter from entering by changing from styrofoam box delivery to cardboard box delivery, and by changing from 150 g bundled delivery form to loose packing form, the delivery destination actual consumer side. It seems that it aimed to reduce labor and work costs. In terms of safety, it seems that efforts were made to ensure safety by inspecting residual pesticides and submitting cultivation history. Distribution with the producer Tsunan Town Agricultural Cooperative, which is working to ensure safety when the raw materials used in the products are switched from imported asparagus to domestic products by Seven Eleven Japan Co., Ltd., which is an actual consumer (actual seller). It seems that Hinodeya Naito Shoten Co., Ltd. has made a contract transaction. In order to ensure safety, it seems that efforts are being made to thoroughly record cultivation history, carry out inspections for residual pesticides, simplify shipping standards to reduce distribution costs, and change shipping materials. History and Folklore Museum: Archaeological materials excavated in Tsunan Town are on display. In the adjacent storage, Akiyama Township is the center, and it is said that living tools unique to heavy snowfall areas are exhibited, including tools used for production and daily life collected from the entire area. It seems that the mountain village production tools around the Akiyama Township that are stored and exhibited are designated as “National Important Cultural Properties”. In addition, thatched private house (a cultural property designated by Tsunan Town) peculiar to Snow Country is preserved on the premises, and it seems that the old appearance has not been repaired. Emigration Promotion Council: In Tsunan Town, the birthrate is declining, the population is aging, the population is declining, and the population is expected to fall below 10,000 in the near future. In addition, the number of clusters with an aging rate exceeding 50% is increasing year by year, and there is concern that the cluster function will decline. It is expected that this tendency will continue in the future in light of changes in social conditions, and I hear that the declining population has a negative impact everywhere. On the other hand, according to a questionnaire survey of these people living in the metropolitan area as the baby boom generation reaches the mass retirement period, 40% of them are country-oriented and want to move to rural areas. For these reasons, the town established the “Tsunan Town Migration Promotion Council” to promote the migration of urban residents to Tsunan Town, stop the population decline, and revitalize the region. It seems that the private sector and the government will work together to develop migration and settlement measures. By establishing a solid acceptance system and promoting a unique business unique to Tsunan, he said that he will strive to increase the number of exchanged immigrants, follow up with immigrants, and create a system that allows them to live in Tsunan Town with peace of mind. It has been. It is said that they will not only stop the population decline, but also believe that the wind brought by the migrants will revitalize the town in a more wonderful area, and will strongly promote their activities. “Tsunan Town Forestry Association” : Business description Manufacture and sale of timber and food mainly for forest operations and forest resources. Mushroom cultivation / production / sales, history: Established union in 1967, started forestry business, 1968 chip factory lease contract, forestry business started, 1969 started manufacturing of canned nameko canned bottles, 1972 started sawmill operation, 1974 wood Started crafts business, 1978 Wood carving training center, 1977 Oga flour manufacturing business started, 1986 Nameko cultivation business started, 1988 Yamana processing plant newly established (currently Daiichi Food Factory) 1991 Forestry center construction, Nameko co-selection business Started, 1993 Construction of Shitake Culture Center, 1996 Expansion of nameko co-selection shipping facility, 1998 Expansion of Oga flour production facility, Construction of new sawmill incinerator, construction of third food factory in 2010, construction of automatic warehouse for food products in 2021. As a food manufacturer, I thought that it was necessary to obtain third-party certification because I wanted to guarantee the safety of my work in order to deliver safe food, and in December 2010, I said that the hurdle was the highest. I decided to challenge the FSSC 22000. Over the next three years, he has been working on establishing a food safety management system and improving facilities. As a result, it was certified as FSSC 22000 on October 31, 2015. In the future, he is planning to continue to work on food safety, fulfill his responsibilities as a manufacturer, and strive for regional and organizational development. The registered facility of FSSC22000 seems to be a facility related to specialty processed foods and a management department. I heard that the scope of registration is the production of processed foods such as vegetables, edible wild plants, dried seaweeds, mushrooms, and rice, and boiled mushrooms. It is well known that “Pholiota nameko” is widely cultivated after “shiitake mushroom”. The history of cultivation is not so old, and it seems that it has been cultivated mainly in Tohoku since around 1950. It seems that there are several types of mushrooms originally called “Pholiota nameko”. It seems that three types of mushrooms, enokitake, numerisugitake, and tsutsue (ancient name of Pholiota nameko), which occur on fallen trees such as beech and quercus crispula all over the country from Hokkaido to Kyushu, were considered to be the representative varieties of “Pholiota nameko”. I’ve heard that Tsutsue is now called “Pholiota nameko”. Artificial cultivation is said to have started in the latter half of the Taisho era. It is said that the cultivation method was a primitive method of using logs such as beech and horse chestnut to add spores and waiting for spores to adhere. Since the successful cultivation of nameko mushrooms from “Pholiota nameko” collected by Mr. Hikosaburo Morimoto of Kyoto Prefecture in 1930, log cultivation has become popular in Yamagata and Akita prefectures, and the production volume has increased. Seems to have started to grow. After that, with the development of the seed piece inoculum devised by Dr. Kimizo Kitajima of the National Forestry Experiment Station, the production of “Pholiota nameko” by raw wood reached its peak in the first half of the 1965s in the natural nameko production area. It seems to be new. The fungal bed cultivation of “Pholiota nameko” by Oyster began later than the cultivation of “Enokitake mushroom” and “Hiratake mushroom” that started in the latter half of the 1955s, and when “Hiratake mushroom” was cultivated in Fukushima Prefecture around 1963. It is said that it was caused by accidentally inoculating Pholiota nameko inoculum, which happened to be a very good outbreak. The accidentally discovered Pholiota nameko mushroom bed cultivation became popular rapidly because the fungus bed was prepared during the off-season in winter, and it was cultivated in a toro box using a fish box. From to box cultivation using plastic containers. It seems that it began to be cultivated all over the country after peaking around 1971. Since it was a crude method of just wrapping it in a sheet, continuous cropping disorders began to occur frequently in various places, and it seems that the production volume has reached a plateau. From around the mid-1965s, I heard that the technique of bag cultivation began to be developed instead of box cultivation, and the continuous cropping disorder was improved. However, since the bag container was as large as 1.5 to 2.0 kg, there were inconveniences such as poor sterilization and a long harvest period, and cultivation technology was developed in a small bag of about 800 g from the mid-1975s. By using a small medium, the harvest period has become shorter, and from this time on, “year-round cultivation”, in which the growth temperature is adjusted and cultivation is carried out throughout the year, can be started. In the 1985s, the switch to mechanized bottle cultivation progressed, and short-term cultivation type varieties were being developed one after another by inoculum makers, resulting in large-scale labor-saving facilities as in recent years. It seems that air-conditioned Pholiota nameko cultivation has become the mainstream. The Tsunan Town Forestry Association has been refining its product development and production technology for more than 30 years in the nameko business because it wants producers to taste really delicious nameko. It is said that it is now produced at 11 Tsunan producer groups and our union factory. (12 in total) I heard that the union makes use of the characteristics of the forestry industry, mainly from broad-leaved trees procured from the prefecture, to make a medium with oga powder, and to cultivate, harvest, ship and sell. It is devised so that the trace can be clearly understood. Prevention of lifestyle-related diseases: Dietary fiber of mushrooms is expected to have the effect of lowering blood cholesterol levels. It seems that the function of smoothing blood flow and lowering blood pressure has been clarified. Also, it seems to have an antioxidant effect (changes acidity to alkali). Antitumor effect: β-glucan is said to have the function of increasing the activity of natural killer cells (NK cells) and T lymphocytes, which exert strong resistance to cancer. In Niigata Prefecture, it seems that a subsidy project is being implemented with the main purpose of promoting PR activities for Sugi brand lumber houses in Niigata. Tsunan Town Forestry Association is famous as “Echigo Cryptomeria japonica
certified lumber production factory”. The growing problem of global warming is becoming a concern day by day. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is the responsibility of humankind living in the 21st century. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is an unavoidable issue for businesses as well. Carbon offsets are attracting attention as a new way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Echigo Tsumari is an area called Tsumari Township (beautiful rice terraces) in Tokamachi City and Tsunan Town located in the southern part of Niigata Prefecture. In addition, it is a prosperous area centered on a basin opened in the middle reaches of the Shinano River, which boasts the longest length in Japan. Echigo-Tsumari Art Festival (1994, Governor of Niigata Prefecture, Ikuo HIRAYAMA (Specially Appointed Professor of Nagaoka University of Technology, Part-time Faculty of Business Creation Graduate University. Former President of Niigata International Information University) In accordance with the Niigata Sato Creation Plan, the 10-year plan “Echigo Tsumari Art Necklace Maintenance Concept” has started to bring out the charm of the region through art and expand the exchange population. The “Ari Art Triennale” started in 2000.) It is famous for the area where it is held. In Niigata prefecture, where there is a lot of snow, 2 meters of snow seems to be the norm. The Tsunan Forestry Association always has food that Tsunan can be proud of throughout the season. Spring carrots spoil faster, sweet and soft asparagus, exquisite sweet corn, the highest peak tea beans of edamame, Uonuma Koshihikari Rice, the best in Japan, nameko of mushroom kingdom, grifola frondosa, enokitake, shiitake mushrooms, mountain herbs of mountain blessings, etc. The food factory in the hometown delivers the rich ingredients that the hometown is proud of as processed foods. Based on that idea, it seems that they are focusing on making products that are differentiated with high added value.
The Pholiota nameko business has been refining its product development and production technology for more than 30 years, with the desire of producers to taste truly delicious mushrooms. It is produced at 11 Tsunan producer groups and union factories, for a total of 12. Taking advantage of the characteristics of the forestry industry, the union seems to make a medium from broad-leaved trees procured from the prefecture with sawdust, and carry out cultivation, harvesting, shipping and sales.
FSSC 22000 certification (international standard for food safety management system reinforced with ISO 22000 with additional requirements. Approved as one of the benchmark standards by the Global Food Safety Initiative. Food safety promotion body under The Consumer Goods Forum. TCGF (Worldwide) Respected by retailers and buyers, operated by the Consumer Goods Forum) is a global food distribution and manufacturing network, with four initiatives based on “sharing knowledge and best practices”: “sustainability” and “sustainability”. We are developing activities centered on “product safety”, “health & wellness”, and “end-to-end value chain and standardization”. GFSI is working as part of TCGF’s “safety & health”. Was established in May 2000. The retail industry, manufacturing industry, food service industry, accreditation / certification body, and international organizations related to food safety participated in the acquisition). We are working on the carbon offset business. In addition to the self-development training course, the staff composition is from a wide range of perspectives from teens to 60s. It seems that you can get the knowledge as an organization person.