Diospyros kaki Thunb.
The name “rolling persimmon” comes from the fact that when peeled persimmons are lined up in the garden and dried in the sun, the positions of the persimmons are changed at appropriate intervals so that the entire persimmon is exposed to the sun. It seems that it is said that there is. In addition, dried persimmons are generally called KORO persimmons, but the etymology of the persimmons is that they have a round shape or are made by rolling them, so there are theories such as the meaning of persimmons and the meaning of persimmons (powdered persimmons). The mainly used “Koshu Hyakume Persimmon” was originally called “Koshu momme”, and I heard that it got this name because it has a size of 100 momme (= about 375 grams). Mr. Mitsuaki Tezuka discovered Yamato Hyakume Persimmon and started development of the log in the Shirane district of Minami Alps City. I will write about momme later.
Information on farmers I know and the National Federation of Light Vehicle Associations (a voluntary distribution confirmation system (illegal distribution) that replaces the national ownership certification system in order to protect the ownership of light vehicles and motorcycles and promote proper distribution. Established in 1967 with the approval of a corporate body from the Minister of Transport Yasuhiro Nakasone (who also served as the Prime Minister of Japan) as an organization that implements preventive measures. According to the renewed approval from the Prime Minister and re-established as the National Federation of Light Vehicle Associations from April 1st of the same year), the delay in delivery of lightweight trucks seems to be due to the shortage of electronic parts. Demand for semiconductors that control motors and batteries is tight worldwide due to the economic resumption from the corona disaster. It seems that the production of wire harnesses that transmit electrical signals to each device has been delayed due to the shutdown of factories in Southeast Asia due to the spread of corona infection. It is said that the shortage of domestically manufactured parts has accelerated since the beginning of the year. It seems that the number of small and medium-sized parts factories that are shutting down due to infected factory employees is increasing. The shortage of parts from Southeast Asia is being resolved, but it is expected that the delay will continue at least until the domestic infection situation subsides. Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd. (Headquarters: Ikeda City, Osaka Prefecture) and Suzuki Co., Ltd. (Headquarters: Minami Ward, Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka Prefecture), a major manufacturer of lightweight trucks, pursue safety and environmental performance when purchasing light vehicles, fuel-efficient vehicles, and vehicles subject to tax exemption. Admits that there is no doubt that delivery is delayed more than usual. Daihatsu has shut down its factory in Oita prefecture, which makes “Hijet trucks”, from the 1st. It is said that parts cannot be collected from the supplier and a finished vehicle cannot be made. The operation is scheduled to resume on March 10, 2022, but it seems that securing parts is unpredictable. The history of mini vehicles in Japan began in July 1949 when the standards for mini vehicles were first established. The current standards for mini vehicles are three-wheeled and four-wheeled vehicles with a displacement of 660 cc or less, a length of 3.4 m or less, a width of 1.48 m or less, and a height of 2.0 m or less. Is much smaller, and it seems that there was no distinction between four-wheeled, three-wheeled, and two-wheeled. In 1950, the year after the standard for mini vehicles was established, the distinction between two-wheeled, three-wheeled, and four-wheeled vehicles was established. For three-wheeled and four-wheeled light vehicles, the length is 3 m or less, the width is 1.3 m or less, and the height is Below 2.0 m, the displacement has been expanded to 300 cc. Since then, the standard has been repeatedly revised and expanded, and in 1998 it became the current standard for mini vehicles. Again, the delivery of lightweight trucks, which are indispensable for agricultural work, has been delayed. This is because there is a worldwide shortage of electronic components such as semiconductors used in automobiles due to the effects of the new coronavirus. It seems that it is not uncommon for it to take more than half a year after ordering. Industry groups are also working on each connection to minimize damage, but the impact seems to be protracted. Erinji Temple is 4 km away from Koshu City Hall on Prefectural Route 36. When you enter the main temple building, you can see the garden of the national scenic spot, Shingen Takeda, and the tomb of Yoshiyasu YANAGISAWA-Ko. It is reported that Sadafuji NIKAIDO-Ko of Kai protection donated the territory and built Muso Kokushi as the opening of the mountain in 1330 of the Kamakura period. In 1558-70, he was protected by Shingen Takeda, and in 1564, he invited Joki KAISEN (Soto sect) to become a priest. When Mr. Takeda died in 1582, he was said to have concealed the hexagonal porridge and was burned down by Oda Nobutada’s army. At this time, he seems to have pushed the monks including Osho into a large triple gate to temple and set fire to death. At this time, Joki’s famous word was “安禅不必須山水減却心頭に火自涼”. Koshu City Enzanmikkaichiba, 十組屋敷: It seems that there is no remains, only a stone monument is built along the prefectural road No. 36 near Erinji (near the signal of Mikkaichiba). In 1633, Itami Harima no Kami Yasukatsu-Ko of Kofu Castle guarded 12,000 Koku and made it a cantonment of the Tokumi clan (Mikka Ichiba Village, Kurihara-suji, Yamanashi District). In 1698, the fourth generation Katsumori-Ko committed suicide in Edo Castle, and the clan became a former residence. Tsuchiya house main house: 1868-1882,1960,1970,2003 Renovation, wooden 2nd floor part 3rd and 4th floor, tiled roof, building area 232m2. Registration date: 20170502, registered tangible cultural property (building). It is located on the road leading from Enzan（Yamanashi）to Chichibu（Saitama）. It is said that the main house was built by the great-grandfather of the current head of the family, and for sericulture, the appearance is such that the third floor of the push-up roof and the fourth floor of the over-roof are overlapped on the second floor roof. The entrance is opened in the center, and three rooms of 10 tatami mats are lined up on the left front side. It seems that there is a middle corridor to the north. The following eight new registered tangible cultural properties (buildings) were registered as of May 2, 2017. In addition to these, it is said that there will be 24 registered tangible cultural properties in the city. 岩堂セギ分水口（塩山牛奥）, 中村屋旅館本館（塩山上於曽）, 土屋家住宅主屋（塩山三日市場）, 土屋家住宅文庫蔵（塩山三日市場）, 土屋家住宅米蔵（塩山三日市場）, 土屋家住宅麹蔵（塩山三日市場）, 土屋家住宅裏門（塩山三日市場）, 土屋家住宅座敷門及び塀（塩山三日市場）. Agriculture has multiple functions such as national land, environmental conservation, and living environment as well as food supply. Looking only at the food supply aspect, it is possible to improve productivity by using chemical fertilizers and chemically synthesized pesticides. However, if too much chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used for that purpose, soil and rivers may be polluted and the ecosystem balance may be disturbed. It is certain that it can go around and adversely affect human health. “Environmental conservation type agriculture” is a sustainable agriculture that takes advantage of the material circulation function of agriculture, paying attention to harmony with productivity, and reducing the environmental load by using chemical fertilizers and pesticides through soil preparation. The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides can pollute the land and destroy the ecosystem. It is good to plant cover crops (green manure) during the period when the crops are not cultivated for sustainable agricultural production in harmony with the environment. “Conservation Oriented Agriculture”: Organic farming, natural farming, alternative farming, low-input sustainable farming, etc. are included, but from the strictest standpoint of pesticide-free and chemical-free fertilizer cultivation, the use of chemical materials is not permitted at all. , There is a range to the position of reduced chemical fertilizer. The national government enacted the Sustainable Agriculture Law in 1999 to provide support by lending agricultural improvement funds to certified farmers and providing special measures for taxation of agricultural machinery. In addition, the law states that “agricultural production method with high sustainability” is “a rational agricultural production method that is recognized as contributing to the maintenance and promotion of the productivity of agricultural land derived from the nature of soil and other favorable farming environments.” Defined, specifically, technology related to the application of organic materials such as compost that has a high soil improvement effect, technology related to the application of fertilizer that has a high effect of reducing the application of chemically synthesized fertilizers, control of weeds and pests, etc. Among the technologies related to this, the ones that are highly effective in reducing the use of chemically synthesized pesticides are listed. GAP is an acronym for Good Agricultural Practice, which is usually translated as Good Agricultural Practice or Agricultural Production Process Management. GAP is like ISO (International Standard) and means the norms of production process control and hygiene control such as whether pesticides are used correctly, safe fertilizers are used, and they are washed with clean water. In addition, an agricultural management entity recognized as having cleared these norms by examination by a third-party organization can obtain GAP certification. Since GAP is a norm for process control, it is expected to have the effect of preventing problems and facilitating the investigation of the cause, compared to conventional result control. 「甲州百目」は, 釣鐘型で, 大きなものでは重さ500g以上になる不完全渋柿である。山梨県で古くから栽培されている品種で, 脱渋して生食するほか, 干柿にも加工される。「百目」「蜂屋」「日本柿」などともいう。「甲州百目」を1個1個手で丁寧に皮を剥き, 干し棚で冷風に当て, 平干しされ, 甘い枯露柿が出来る。Peel the raw persimmon carefully and dry it in the sun, dry it for about 40 days and make it the highest peak that has been prized since ancient times. When dried, the astringency is gone, and when the astringency is gone, the sweetness is felt. The culmination of the predecessor’s outstanding efforts.「大和百目」は,「甲州百目」と並び, 今日に至る山梨県を代表する大型の枯露柿の原料として親しまれ多いなる人気を誇る。南アルプス市域で多く生産されている品種の一つでもある。「大和百目」という品種の歩みは, 西野地区に近接する上今諏訪の『手塚半』氏の竹林の中にあった一本の柿の木から始まりとされ, この木は「甲州百目」の枝代わりと言われているが, 果実の大きさは, それ以上で, 核（種）が少なく,「甲州百目」よりも早く熟す特性がある。「枯露柿」として用いると, 果肉が非常に滑らかで食味がよく, 色も鮮やかに仕上る傾向 : Mr. Mitsuaki Tezuka of the Nishino district, who was fascinated by the persimmons of this tree, took scion from the raw wood of Suwa and made it into a sapling. It is said that it has been planted and a rare persimmon garden has been created. Yamanashi Hyakume is currently very popular as a raw material for large dried persimmons that represent Yamanashi. It seems that the history of the varieties began with a persimmon tree in the bamboo forest of Mr. Han Tezuka of Kamiimasuwa, which is close to Nishino. This tree was said to be a substitute for the 100th branch of Koshu, but the fruits are larger, have fewer nuclides, and ripen faster than the former. When used for Koro persimmons, the flesh is very smooth and has a good texture, and the color is vivid. Looking at the city, it is located in the central part of the fan of the Midai River, and it is said that it can be burnt even on a moonlit night.) Is listed as a special product. It is said that astringent persimmons, cigarettes, firewood, burdock roots, radishes, and winter onions are listed in the 1837 “Hara Shichigo Seven Kinds of Products Book” (“Shirane Town Magazine Material Edition”). In addition, it says, “Astringent persimmons have been declared to sell the baskets in the country,” and it is clear that they were selling persimmons all over the country as cash crops. It seems that the persimmon was also a cash crop. Therefore, it seems that there were not a few cases of dispute caused by wide-ranging field sales in various places, and it seems that there is a written rule in Shichika Village in Harakata that shows the rules for business. Ayuzawa Village, located in the southern part of the Midai River alluvial fan, was also known as a persimmon producing area. Kai koku shi (Records of Kai Provin) “Nari from Aizawa Village, Nishi District, Matsudaira Kai no Kami December 2nd offering auction, and bait bag Tomo name Kesei mo dried persimmon monite nuclear support From the description of Tounhi, White hoarfrost Kishite Sweet Nari”, it can be seen that dried persimmons were made. When the Edo Shogunate opened at the end of the Tokugawa shogunate and transactions with foreign countries began in earnest, it seems that there was a movement to export persimmons, which is a special product of Yamanashi. In 1859, Mr. Koshuya Chuemon, who was born in Fuefuki City’s former Higashi Yukawa Village, listed “Koro persimmons, grapes, Nashi pears, Gosho persimmons” as the products he handles in a document requesting the government office to open a trading company in Yokohama. It seems that it is. In the modern era, full-scale research and research will be conducted on persimmons cultivated all over the country. According to the “Dry Persimmon Chestnut Manufacturing Complete Book and Fruit Cultivation Method” published in 1914, persimmons are considered to be the most abundant type of fruit trees, and the Agricultural Experiment Station of the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce collected them from all over the country and conducted quality tests by 1914. It is said that the number of persimmons has reached 3,000. In the same book, the seed called Hyakume in Fuji persimmon is native to Yamanashi prefecture, and says, “The flavor is not handed over to Hachiya persimmon, and the water content is larger than that of Hachiya persimmon. Is as promising as Fuji, and is not as good as Gion.” etc. “Yamato Hyakume”, along with “Koshu Hyakume”, is popular as a raw material for large-sized dead dew persimmons that represent Yamanashi Prefecture to this day. It is also one of the many varieties produced in the southern Alps. The history of the “Yamato Hyakume” variety is said to have started with a persimmon tree in the bamboo forest of Mr. Tezuka of Kamiimasuwa, which is close to the Nishino area. Although it is said to be a substitute for branches, the size of the fruit is larger, the number of nuclei (seed) is small, and it ripens faster than “Koshu Hyakume”. When used as a “dried persimmon”, the flesh is very smooth and tasty, and the color tends to be vivid. Mr. Mitsuaki Tezuka of the Nishino area, who was fascinated by the persimmons of this tree, took the scion from the raw wood of Suwa and made it into a sapling. Around 1918, more than 100 years ago, 50 seedlings were planted near the current Momonooka housing complex, creating a rare persimmon garden. Returning to the story, the true identity of the astringent taste is Persimmon tannin. Among various plant-derived tannins, “persimmon tannin” is a huge molecular structure in which four types of catechins (EC, EGC, ECg, EGCg) are bonded like a chain, and many “phenolic hydroxyl groups: (-OH) ”. Tannins are considered to have antioxidant and antibacterial effects, and are a member of the well-known “polyphenol” substances in recent years. It is recognized that it has a high deodorizing effect that eliminates the malodorous component from the original (root) by chemically binding to the malodorous component and changing to another component. Moreover, it has bactericidal and antibacterial effects that repel microorganisms and viruses, suppresses the decomposition and fermentation of sweat and old keratin, and can be expected to have the effect of suppressing the generation of foul odors. Among the six major carotenoids of “α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene”, only “β-cryptoxanthin” was found to have a significant lung cancer risk reduction effect. There are several reports of new bioregulatory functions that stand out from “β-cryptoxanthin”, such as a series of reports. “Zeaxanthin”, a type of carotenoid, has the function of maintaining the amount of macular pigment in the eye, and there are reports of improving the tone of the eye by improving contrast sensitivity and protecting it from light stimuli such as blue light. “Catalase” is a heme enzyme that is widely present in the body and decomposes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. The flesh is carefully squeezed and then dried, and the flesh has a deep yellow color that looks like golden and looks very elegant and beautiful. Partially-dried Japanese persimmon: Among the dried persimmons, the water content is relatively high, and the flesh is soft and sweet. As a guideline for drying in a well-ventilated place, dry the raw persimmons to 35% or less of 100 (depending on the size and condition of the persimmons) after peeling. However, no matter how good the conditions are at home, it will be difficult to improve the quality to this state. After all, it can be done by reading the weather and using skillful techniques. “Kurokawa Gold Mine” is located in Enzan-kamihagihara, Koshu City, Yamanashi Prefecture, and prospered during the Mr. Takeda era. It reached its peak in the middle of the 16th century and was called Kurokawa Senken, but it declined in the 1570s and became an abandoned mountain.There is a mountain called Mt. Tosaka（Altitude: 2,115 m）in the mountainous area east of Yamanashi Prefecture, which is the headwaters of the Tama River. Sleeping in the forest of Kurokawa Valley on the east side is the ruins of the gold mine of “Kurokawa Senken”, which is said to have supported the military funds of Mr. Takeda Sengoku / Muromachi. It is a deep mountain that is rarely visited now. The scale of the mining town is 600 m above and below the valley of Kurokawa, and the maximum width is 300 m. The excavation area was only one-third of that of this vast archaeological site, but tunnels, ore crushing workshops, gold melting workshops, managers’ residences and tombs, etc. were confirmed, and the mining town’s efficiency was improved. It seems that the structure has been clarified. Various relics reminiscent of life at that time-earthenware, ceramics, copper coins, kisel, kanzashi, swords, scissors, flint, fishing hooks, go stones, gunballs, powder mills, tea mills, stone Buddha pedestals, and five-wheeled towers have been excavated. Estimating the age of the mining town from earthenware, it surely appeared in the first half of the 16th century and disappeared in the middle of the 17th century. The heyday is the era of Harunobu Takeda (Shingen) -Ko, as the legend says. However, it is speculated that it was not directly managed. In recent years, the excavation of archaeological sites and joint research on history using ancient documents have become active, and it is said that this cooperation was particularly successful in the survey of Kurokawa gold mine. The results of the excavation at the site of the ruins seem to be in good agreement with the rise and fall of this mining town, which was estimated by connecting fragmentary ancient documents. Such a poor tool stand shows that special mining tools were not yet developed at that time, and gold mining and refining were started by trial and error. Fortunately, the ore in this mine contained pure gold grains in the quartz veins, which enabled the refining of gold by such a primitive method. The fact that the final gold melting work was done in small groups also means that the Kanayama people (the miner who collected gold at the gold mine in the Takeda territory during the Warring States period. He was active as an engineer unit by leading the Kanehori people. There were quite a few gold mines in Kurokawa gold mine, Yunooku gold mine, and Tambayama gold mine. Kurokawa Kanayama people have 12 surnames of Tanabe, Nakamura, Furuya, Yoda, Kazama, Hosaka, Hoshina, Ohno, Ikeda, Ashizawa, Tagusagawa, and Fukasawa.）In addition to that, it seems that it shows a medieval aspect different from the specialized mine management in the early modern period. The mine, which declined rapidly at the end of the 16th century and left by the influential Kanayama people, no longer produced gold in the Edo period, and the remaining gold digger made a living by undertaking civil engineering work. However, the technology developed here was applied to mines around the world and contributed to transforming Japan in the 17th century into one of the world’s leading producers of gold and silver. The SADO gold mine magistrate in the early Edo period was occupied by successive Koshu natives, and the success of Mr. Shigeemon Nagata from Kurokawa in the irrigation work is said to have applied the technology born at this mine to paddy field development.
It seems that red plums have begun to bloom in early February at the Shingon Sect Chizan School Hokoji Temple (Enzanfujiki) in Koshu City. One of about 30 plums planted in the precincts bloomed bright pink flowers. According to the chief priest, several types of plum blossoms in the precincts will bloom in sequence from the beginning of the red plum blossoms, and you can enjoy various plum blossoms until the end of March. Ume tree with red blossoms can be seen until early March. Known as the “Temple of Flowers” where various flowers bloom from early spring to late autumn, it has a history of more than 800 years and holds many cultural assets such as “Wooden statue of the seated Dainichi Nyorai”.
It will be sold from mid-December to late January and can be eaten. Recently, storage technology has improved in individual packaging, and it seems that it can be stored for about a month. If frozen, it will last for about a year. It seems to be hard to freeze because of its high sugar content. Around November, it seems that the ripe and red persimmons are harvested with the handle part left in a T shape, the calyx is removed, and the skin is peeled off leaving only the skin at the tip of the buttocks. If possible, dip it in boiling water to prevent mold and remove the stickiness of the surface. Tie the vinyl string around a ring, hang a T-shaped pattern on both ends, tie a persimmon, hang it on a pole, and dry it in the sun at the eaves. Remove the string from the persimmon and cut off the handle with pruning shears to form an oval shape. If there is, wrap it between rice straws and let it soak in a cool and dark place until the powder is wiped. Put it in the “dish of raw fish and vegetables seasoned in vinegar” to make it “persimmon dish of raw fish and vegetables seasoned in vinegar”, or tempura (Is seafood or vegetables that have been covered in batter and Sometimes it’s fried in oil.), But when I went back to the countryside, my grandmother cooked it and I ate it several times.
Of the 176 items of local food that we are working to pass on to the next generation, “Yamanashi no Meal,” it has been selected as the “Special Yamanashi no Meal,” which has been squeezed out as a more representative 47 item. It is a candy-colored dried persimmon that uses a large variety of persimmon that is often made in Koshu City and Minami Alps City. Even if the same dried persimmon is soft with a moisture content of around 50%, it is called “partially dried Japanese persimmon”, and if the moisture content is around 25% to 30%, the sweetness component crystallizes and white powder blows out, which is called “dried persimmon”. The drying period is also long.